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By: Kate Leslie, MB, BS, MD, Staff Specialist, Head of Anesthesia Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital; Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Clinically vive long periods (up to a month) without water normal birds have a tendency to become polyuric 41 under certain conditions; however discount 5 mg proscar fast delivery prostate oncology pharmacy, domesticated when in a stressful environment (eg proscar 5 mg low price prostate 3d, the veterinary budgerigars and finches that are provided free-choice clinic) purchase proscar without a prescription prostate cancer 9 year old. In these birds order 20 mg cialis jelly fast delivery, a urine sample is easy to obtain water may lose much of their compensatory ability purchase generic lady era pills. This will result in the excretion of urine frac- Australian semidesert and has a low turnover rate of tion that has not moved retrograde into the large water order generic kamagra super on-line, but has a limited renal concentrating ability intestine where absorption of water and salts typi- with a maximal urine:plasma osmotic ratio of only cally occurs. In this species, the large intestine has been Urate-free urine samples should be examined for adapted to preserve water. The high resorptive ca- specific gravity or osmolality, color, clearness, pH, pacity may be related to increased folding of the protein, glucose, hemoglobin and the sediment mucosal surface, which increases the surface area by a factor of five. Cranial (k1), middle This was a breeding male that died after a (k2) and caudal (k3) divisions of the kidney brief period of severe depression. Uric acid adhere tightly to the synsacrum in the dor- deposits were also present in the pericar- sal abdominal wall. Structures been removed to show the relationship of that are clearly visible are cranial (k1), the kidneys with the synsacrum (s) and the middle (k2) and caudal (k3) divisions of the sacral nerve plexus (arrow). Other struc- kidney, right and left testicles (t), lung (lu), tures that are easily identified include the ureter (open arrow), caudal renal vein (ar- lung (lu), left ovary (o) and oviduct (open row). Histologic evaluation of abdominal and caudal thoracic air sacs a fine-needle aspirate was suggestive of were thickened, and a velvet-like yellow adenocarcinoma in the lung. A renal mass material was present on the surface of the identified at gross necropsy was confirmed membranes (arrow). This bird had dle divisions of the left kidney and the is- no clinical changes suggestive of rear limb chiatic nerve (open arrow) were also in- ataxia or weakness, which frequently ac- volved. The ovary (o), ovi- extension to the kidneys and nerves was duct (open arrow), ischium (i), external iliac the cause of death in this bird. Articular gout is common in Hemorrhage and swelling of the right cra- some birds secondary to renal dysfunction. A three-year-old budgerigar was presented with a two-week history of progressive Color 21. The bird was Iron storage disease is a common cause of first noted with dyspnea about three death in toucans and mynahs. Excessive months prior to presentation and was se- accumulation of iron is usually present in verely dyspneic during the physical exami- the liver but can also occur in the kidney nation. Histologic changes in Other structures that are clearly visible the right kidney (rk) were consistent with include the ovary (o), oviduct (arrow) and a renal adenocarcinoma, and the left kid- the caudal renal vein (open arrow) (cour- ney (lk) had undergone cystic changes. In this case, polyuria in a juvenile immature gallinaceous hen in end-stage re- Blue and Gold Macaw occurred secondary nal failure. Note that trointestinal tract or cloaca, which is com- the tubules are white and filled with urates mon. In could be visualized through the skin (as in this cockatiel with severe metritis, both Color 21. This should be fluid part of the excreta (urine) can be recovered considered when evaluating the values for these cat- immediately after excretion.
Based on their size and physiology proscar 5 mg on line prostate cancer facts, birds are more prone than mammals to intoxication by some compounds purchase proscar 5 mg mastercard androgen hormone diet, such as volatile chemicals and fumes proscar 5 mg without a prescription prostate 3t mri. It has been suggested that the con- sumption of foreign bodies (eg propranolol 40mg cheap, metal cytotec 200 mcg mastercard, wood buy clomiphene 100 mg without a prescription, jewelry), over-consumption of grit and coprophagy may all be mediated by malnutrition (Gerlach H, unpublished). Genevieve Dumonceaux Therefore, birds on a formulated diet would be ex- pected to chew less on plants, perches and toys than Greg J. Treat seizures and shock as or anyl substituent damage needed groups Drain cleaners Sodium hydroxide, Caustic to skin and mucous membranes, Flush affected areas with water or milk. Do not sodium hypochlorite irritation, inflammation, edema, necrosis, use emetics or lavage. Treat for shock and pain burns in mouth, tongue, pharynx Fireworks Nitrates, chlorates, Abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody feces, Crop or gastric lavage. Use methylene blue or mercury, antimony, rapid shallow respiration, chlorates may ascorbic acid for methemoglobinemia. Avoid gastric hydrocarbons, necrosis, mucosal irritation, aspiration or lavage or proceed with caution. Antibiotics and supportive care Matches Potassium chloride Gastroenteritis, vomiting, chlorates may Treat symptomatically. Use methylene blue or induce methemoglobinemia with ascorbic acid for methemoglobinemia cyanosis and hemolysis Paint/varnish Benzene, methanol, Dermal irritation, depression, narcosis, See “furniture polish. Provide fresh air if strong fumes are present Overheated non-stick Polytetrafluoroethylene Sudden death, dyspnea, depression, Fresh air or oxygen, fluids, steroids for cookware, drip pans, pulmonary hemorrhage pulmonary edema, antibiotics, supportive care heat lamps, irons, ironing board covers Poor grade peanuts, Mycotoxins: aflatoxin, Gastrointestinal irritation, dermal Clean feed, antibiotics for secondary peanut waste, moldy ochratoxin, irritation, oral necrosis, secondary infections. Brodifacoum, treat for 28-30 days Rodenticides Cholecalciferol Causes hypercalcemia and renal failure, Activated charcoal, fluid therapy. Do not give bicarbonate orally for necrosis from chewing on pencils acid poisonings Many of the therapeutic recommendations for the above products have been taken from small animal sources. Toxin-contami- nated water, air and food supplies can affect birds through direct contact or through poisoning of com- ponents in the food chain. Often the intoxication is subtle, and poisons accumulate over time (eg, lead in waterfowl, organochlorines in birds of prey). Birds of prey and fish-eating birds are particularly susceptible to contaminants in the food chain be- cause of biologic magnification. It is of interest that the health of free-ranging birds is frequently ignored as a sensitive indicator of human-induced damage to our environment. In this case, a conure was In addition to human-related toxins, food and water presented with lead poisoning secondary to the consumption of supplies encountered by free-ranging birds may also lead-containing solder used to hold his feeding dish. The case was further complicated by gastrointestinal impaction secondary to the be contaminated by biologic organisms that produce ingestion of pieces of the plastic dish and malnutrition caused by their own toxins, including molds (mycotoxins), bac- a diet of wild bird seeds. Clinicians should carefully evaluate the teria (endotoxins) and certain blue-green algae environment in birds with clinical signs consistent with toxicity. Birds are generally more susceptible to inhaled toxins When submitting samples for toxicologic analysis, it than mammals because of their rapid metabolic rate, is best to call the laboratory for information on small size, highly efficient respiratory system and low proper sample preparation and shipment. In comparison, many compounds that ratories request frozen samples (except whole blood), cause intoxication following ingestion by mammals are preferably individually wrapped to prevent cross- relatively nontoxic in companion birds; however, birds contamination.
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