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The randomized study in Uganda showed a slight increase in infections of the female partners of circumcised males (Waver 2008) purchase on line motrin pain treatment satisfaction scale (ptss). This can be mainly explained by couples probably having sexual intercourse earlier than recommended motrin 400mg mastercard pain treatment center ky. Several weeks of absti- nence are stipulated after the operation generic finax 1mg fast delivery. Is there a protective effect for MSM after circumcision? If there is, the data is less clear compared to the results for heterosexual men. A meta-analysis of 15 greatly varying studies with 53,567 MSM (52% with circumcision) showed no significant difference between circumcised and uncircumcised males (Millet 2008). Another newer study confirms these results (Sanchez 2011). Taken together, it remains unclear whether the protective effects of circumcision apply to the MSM population. Preventive treatment of HSV and other diseases Genital infections clearly increase the risk of acquiring HIV. For example, in a large prospective trial, bacterial vaginosis was associated with a greater than 3-fold increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission (Cohen 2012). Even more rele- vant is human herpes virus 2 (HSV-2) as this common virus can be easily detected and quantified in genital fluids.. Genital HSV-2 infection is associated with increased cervicovaginal and plasma RNA among coinfected women with genital ulcers, inde- pendently of the level of immunodeficiency (LeGoff 2007). According to a meta- analysis, the risk of HIV increases with HSV-2-seropositivity: when HSV-2 antibod- ies are detected in the blood, the risk increases in male patients 2. A considerable amount of new HIV infections are due to HSV coinfection, with an estimated 38–69% in female patients and 8–49% in male patients. Considering these data, several studies have been conducted in which the protective effect of HSV therapy has been evaluated both in HIV-negative and HIV-positive populations. HPTN 039, a double- blind, randomized, Phase III trial investigated this question (Celum 2008). In total, 1871 MSM from the USA and Peru and 1,380 women from Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa received 400 mg acyclovir or placebo twice daily. Enrolled subjects were all HIV-negative and HSV-2-positive at the beginning of the trial. Although less HSV ulcers were observed in the active group, the trial failed to show a decline in HIV incidence in the acyclovir -group, with 3. These disappointing results were confirmed by the Mwanza trial with 821 women in Tanzania, in which again no decline was observed (Watson- Jones 2008). It is still not clear why, however, resistance to acyclovir is unlikely (Watson-Jones 2010).
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