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Despite changes brought by technology purchase terramycin 250mg with amex bacterial vaginal infection, the need to accurately cite the source of information for scholarly publication remains generic terramycin 250mg without a prescription infection ear piercing. And buy cheap singulair 4mg online, while the need to cite remains, the challenges of collecting and reporting accurate, lasting citation information have increased tremendously. Electronic publishing creates new issues of impermanence that paper did not present. With this publication, Citing Medicine, the National Library of Medicine strives to provide those charged with capturing an accurate scholarly citation with a guide to do so in this new era of electronic information, both permanent and ephemeral. Tese same rules and examples can be used for magazines and other types of periodicals. Journal Articles • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples B. Parts of Journal Articles • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Journal Articles Te general format for a reference to a journal article, including punctuation: Examples of Citations to Journal Articles 4 Citing Medicine By tradition, the rules for formatting references to journal articles permit greater abbreviation compared to books: • Journal references omit information on place of publication and publisher, whereas book references carry these details. Tis brevity in citing journal articles stems from the need to conserve space in printed bibliographies and the early databases. Following are some important points concerning citing journal articles: • Cite the journal name that was used at the time of publication. Too many variations in type styles may actually make the reference harder to read. Te source for journal title, volume, issue, and date information is, in order of preference: (1) the title page of the issue, (2) the issue cover, and (3) the masthead. Running headers or footers may not carry the ofcial title of a journal and date and issue information may be missing from these locations. Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Author (R) | Author Afliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Article Type (O) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Date (R) | Volume Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Volume (R) | Issue Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to an Issue (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Journals 5 Author for Journal Articles (required) General Rules for Author • List names in the order they appear in the text • Enter surname (family or last name) frst for each author • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

Likewise purchase line terramycin treatment for dogs constipation, a disaster can be de¿ned as a destructive event that results in the need for a wide range of emergency resources to assist and ensure the survival of the stricken population [7] buy terramycin 250 mg with mastercard bacteria jeopardy. Similarly cheap 1.5 mg lozol overnight delivery, disasters are events that overwhelm community, destroy property and damage populations [8]. These de¿nitions imply situ- ations or events that overwhelm local capacity, necessitating a request for external assis- tance. This suggests that disasters are the consequence of disequilibrium between various phenomena or hazards encountered by human populations and the visceral resistance and reaction of those populations. In recent years, the response to disaster situations has undergone a constant process of improvement and strengthening that provides this kind of humanitarian, but yet un- organised, assistance an imprinting of organisation and high technological development. Now days, many professional and voluntary organisations exist to provide care for popu- lations affected by disasters and the scienti¿c and more systematic approach to disaster medicine is directed towards its recognition as an academic medical discipline. In regard to health care, the medical response must be conducted to provide assistance to the maximum number of victims and to reduce the physical sequelae and mental traumas. In that effort, the goal should be to maintain the quality of assistance provided by the health system before the tragic event [10]. Nevertheless, it is obvious that this laudable and admirable desire is impossible to achieve in most cases. Disaster implies a situation in which the available resources are not suf¿cient to meet the needs of immediate aid and the severity of health damage is too high to be faced without an unavoidable decrease in quality standards of health care. It is implicit in the term disaster that disequilibrium between needs and available resources exists. The behav- ioural philosophy no longer focuses on individuals: the objective is to serve the greatest number of saveable victims, thus creating a condition of passive euthanasia of those whose injuries require great amounts of time and resource-consuming treatment. Physicians must understand that the natural desire to save lives with heroic devotion and perseverance must be put aside. The rapidity of the interventional operation remains a main objective of disaster plan- ning. Experience gained in recent years has taught us that emergency responses with the best outcomes are those carried out by the emergency teams on site rather than interna- tional equips and ¿eld hospitals. In fact, the probabilities that victims will be rescued alive decrease abruptly after 24–48 h after the event [11]. To simplify, a complete airway obstruction, common in un- conscious victims, or a postmyocardial arrest causes asphyxia within 5–10 min; a partial airway obstruction can result in cerebral damage; hypovolaemic shock can cause multiple organ failure or death if not treated within 1 h; an intracranial haematoma can determine cerebral function impairment or death if not drained within the “golden hour”; very severe injuries as well as intestinal perforations can cause septic shock or death if not treated within 6 h; compartmental or crush syndrome can bring about death when the victim is released from entrapment [12]. Retrospective studies about earthquakes in Italy [13] and Armenia and a terrorist attack of similar impact in New York City [14] acknowledged the key role of early intervention. If teams trained in advanced life support had reached the disaster site within 6 h, from 25% to 40% of the victims could have been saved. The ex- pression “the golden 24 hours” refers to that which is summed up above and described in Figure 27.

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In chickens cheap terramycin 250mg with mastercard infection after root canal, if both bile tus occurs commonly in icteric humans and is ducts are ligated purchase 250 mg terramycin with amex antimicrobial therapy publisher, the concentration of plasma bile thought to be caused by the deposition of irritant bile pigments rises immediately but stabilizes after two salts in the skin discount wellbutrin sr 150mg with mastercard. This is a much lower and feather picking have been reported in birds with concentration than is found in mammals with total liver disease. In sera of healthy ducks, low are loosely discussed in association with liver disease levels of bilirubin may be detected, and significantly include pigment changes of feathers (Color 20. Some avian species, such as Hyacinth Macaws, have a normal yellow coloration of the skin that could be misinter- preted as icterus (see Color 8). A few hours after birds have received an intramuscular multivitamin injec- tion, the urate fraction can be yellow-brown in color, which should not be confused with liver-induced changes in the urates (see Color 8). In- other tissues may be found in Chapter 11 and in the creases in plasma enzyme activities are usually re- Appendix. Alternately, it ing pigeons, this enzyme is useful for detecting liver can be determined by measuring the decline in activ- cell damage because the elimination half-life in ity after intravenous administration of purified en- plasma is relatively long. The rapid pri- from plasma, making it a poor indicator of liver mary phase is related to distribution of enzymes by damage, despite relatively high concentrations of diffusion from plasma into other extracellular body this enzyme in liver tissue. The fact that no activity of this enzyme can completion of the latter process is defined as the be found in supernatants of liver tissue homogenates elimination half-life (t1⁄2ß). The results of experimental studies “liver enzymes” in plasma may indicate recent dam- of liver-specific enzymes in racing pigeons are listed age to liver cells and does not give information on in Table 20. This can lead to an errone- damaged and cannot extract bile from the portal vein ous diagnosis of liver disease. It is likely that there is a hepatobiliary disease, five- to ten-fold increases over continuous secretion of bile into the intestine in the upper limit of the reference range were com- birds, with or without a gall bladder. These hormones are re- suggest that values >70 µmol/l in fasted racing pi- leased after the consumption of food. Enterohepatic A tentative diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is recirculation accounts for over 90% of the secreted often made when neurologic signs are seen in birds bile acids being reabsorbed in the jejunum and il- 9 with documented liver disease; however, this syn- eum. In man and other mammals, hepatic taurine conjugates, are a reflection of the clearing encephalopathy and hepatic coma are mostly seen in capacity for bile acids by the liver. All liver functions portosystemic shunting as a result of a portocaval (extraction, conjugation and excretion) are involved anastomosis. It is not a disease in itself but a medical in this process, and determination of plasma bile acid condition characterized by neurologic symptoms concentration provides information on the combined caused by intoxication of the brain by products of effectiveness of these functions. It is believed that enzymatic assays for bile acids, bile salts and their degradation products from protein catabolism act as corresponding glycine and taurine conjugates, there false neurotransmitters. Note the petechial to ecchymotic A mature Blue and Gold Macaw was pre- Normal liver of an adult Umbrella Cocka- hemorrhages in the liver and heart. In Psittaciformes, the The bird died while en route to the emer- A biopsy of the liver indicated severe fatty right liver (rl) lobe is slightly larger than gency clinic. Exsanguination controlled by switching the bird to a formu- seen lying under the transparent, contigu- had occurred secondary to a tear in the liver lated diet supplemented with fresh fruits ous wall of the cranial and caudal thoracic capsule.

Confirmation of metastasis sup- tion of goitrogenic plants such as Brassica species buy 250 mg terramycin fast delivery bacteria growing kit, ports the presumptive diagnosis cheap terramycin 250 mg visa infection xp king. These expan- distended follicles may result in glandular enlargements reaching 20 mm in diameter cheap pamelor express. Be- of improved diets for companion birds, thyroid hyper- cause of their anatomic location, surgical excision of plasia is reported less frequently than three decades ago. Pineoblastoma: A pineoblastoma has been described On gross necropsy examination, the thyroid glands in a cockatiel. His- depression, right-sided head tilt and inability to tologic sections of thyroid gland contain large, irregu- grasp objects with the right foot. Papillary pro- Necropsy examination disclosed a grey suprathal- jections of epithelium may protrude into the lumen amic mass extending into the right ventricle and of some follicles (see Chapter 23). Microscopically, the mass consisted of sheets, cords Thyroid Adenoma: Thyroid adenomas are usually and fewer palisades of round cells with round-to-oval unilateral but may occasionally cause bilateral glan- nuclei, stippled chromatin and lightly basophilic cy- dular enlargement. Occasional mitotic figures were observed Histologically, thyroid adenomas are poorly charac- throughout the mass. Most thyroid adenomas appear as Pinealoma: Pinealoma has been reported in two nodules of encapsulated glandular tissue. These neoplasms are lated, cellular and displaced cerebellar folia and ex- highly vascular. The mass had a lobular Adrenal Gland architecture, with some lobules containing single layers of ciliated columnar-to-pseudostratified-co- In contrast to mammals, avian adrenal glands have lumnar epithelium. When enlargement of the Enlargement of the thyroid glands may be observed adrenal glands is observed at necropsy, a primary with hyperplasia or neoplasia. Their anatomic location terrenal (cortical) cells and have rarely been re- near the thoracic inlet precludes palpation of masses unless glandular enlargements are extreme. A carotid body tumor has been reported cells appear pale with foamy cytoplasm and centrally in a parakeet, but no details of the neoplasm were located nuclei. Marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis was appar- ent, including the presence of tumor giant cells. Mi- Nervous system and ocular neoplasms apparently toses were observed infrequently. Neoplastic cells are infrequent in birds with the exception of pituitary infiltrated adjacent nerves. These struction of cerebrospinal flow, or secondary edema, scattered islets are composed of a diverse aggregation hemorrhage or necrosis. These neoplasms have a of alpha, beta and delta cells that secrete glucagon, poor prognosis, and effective treatment regimens insulin and gastrin, respectively. Secretory islet cell sion below is confined to those neoplasms recently neoplasms may have diverse clinical presentations. An islet cell carcinoma has been reported in a budg- Astrocytoma: An astrocytoma is a differentiated neo- erigar with hyperglycemia.

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