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The maxi- mum value for head circumference of females is case 108 with a value of 38 bentyl 10mg on line gastritis in dogs, which has a z value of 2 discount 10 mg bentyl otc the gastritis diet. In the table purchase line digoxin, ‘Yes’ indicates that the distribution is within the normal range and ‘No’ indicates that the distribution is outside the normal range. Based on all checks of normality, the birth weight of males and females is normally distributed so a two-sample t-test can be used. The distribution of birth length of males and females has a ﬂat shape but does not have any outliers. While birth length of both males and females has some kurtosis, this has less impact on summary statistics than if the data were skewed. The variable head circumference is normally distributed for males but for females has some slight skewness caused by a few outlying values. Also, in the female group there is only one outlier and the number of outlying values is small and the sample size is large, and a t-test will be robust to these small deviations from normality. Therefore, the distribution of each outcome variable is approximately 70 Chapter 3 Histogram for gender = Male 25 Mean = 34. Clearly, if there was no difference between the groups, the difference to variance ratio would be close to zero. The t value becomes larger as the difference between the groups increases in respect to their variances. An approximate formula for calculating a t value, when variances are equal is (x1 − x2) t = √ (s2∕n + s2∕n ) p 1 p 2 where x is the mean, s2 is the pooled variance and n is the sample size of each group. When variances of the two groups are not equal, that is when Levene’s test for equality of variances is signiﬁcant, individual group variances, and not the pooled variance, are used in calculating the t value. The ﬁrst Group Statistics table shows summary statistics, which are identical to the statistics obtained in Analyze → Descriptive Statistics → Explore. However, there is no infor- mation in this table that would allow the normality of the distributions in each group or the presence of inﬂuential outliers to be assessed. Thus, it is important to always obtain full descriptive statistics using the Explore command to check for normality prior to conducting a two-sample t-test. The variable birth weight does not pass the test for equal variances with a P value of 0. For this variable, the statistics calculated assuming variances are not equal is appropriate. However, both birth length and head circumference pass the test of equal variances and the differences between genders can be reported using the t statistics that have been calculated assuming equal variances.

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