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Because it decreases immune responses generic tricor 160 mg amex cholesterol ratio of 3.9, it is important to consider whether new symptoms may indicate an infection buy tricor 160 mg lowest price cholesterol free diet chart. Additional Ophthalmic Drugs Drugs for Dry Eyes Ophthalmic demulcents (artificial tears) are isotonic solutions employed as substitutes for natural tears cheap lumigan 3 ml. Artificial tears are indicated for relieving dry-eye syndromes and discomfort and dryness caused by irritants, wind, and sun. Artificial tears are devoid of adverse effects and hence may be administered as often and as long as desired. Topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion [Restasis] is prescribed for dry eyes due to inflammation. It suppresses the immune response, thereby promoting resumption of tear production. Ocular Decongestants Ocular decongestants are weak solutions of adrenergic agonists applied topically to constrict dilated conjunctival blood vessels. These preparations are used to reduce redness of the eye caused by minor irritation. The adrenergic agents employed as decongestants are phenylephrine, naphazoline, oxymetazoline, and tetrahydrozoline. When applied to the eye in the low concentrations found in decongestant products, adrenergic agonists rarely cause adverse effects. Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are used for inflammatory disorders of the eye (e. Short-term therapy, in the absence of infection, is generally devoid of adverse effects. In contrast, prolonged therapy may cause cataracts, reduced visual acuity, and glaucoma. In addition, there is an increased risk for infection secondary to glucocorticoid-induced suppression of host defenses. This agent is applied to the surface of the eye to detect lesions of the corneal epithelium; intact areas of the cornea remain uncolored, whereas abrasions and other defects turn bright green. Fluorescein can also be used topically and intravenously to assess flow of aqueous humor. Adverse effects from systemic administration include nausea, vomiting, paresthesias, and pruritus. Rose bengal is applied topically to visualize abrasions of the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. Lissamine green, another topical dye, turns bright green in the presence of conjunctival defects and dryness. Because it is less likely to cause stinging, it is beginning to replace rose bengal as a diagnostic tool. Topical Drugs for Ocular Infections Topical drugs are available for treating viral and bacterial infections of the eye. Four antiviral drugs—trifluridine, vidarabine, ganciclovir, and idoxuridine—are employed.
In addition generic 160mg tricor mastercard cholesterol study, patients should be informed that orthostatic hypotension can be minimized by avoiding abrupt transitions from a supine or sitting position to an erect posture quality tricor 160 mg questran cholesterol medication. Alpha-adrenergic antagonists can increase heart rate by triggering the baroreceptor reflex discount atarax 10 mg amex. The mechanism is this: (1) blockade of vascular alpha1 receptors causes vasodilation; (2) vasodilation reduces blood pressure; and (3) baroreceptors sense the reduction in blood pressure and, in an attempt to restore normal pressure, initiate a reflex increase in heart rate via the autonomic nervous system. If necessary, reflex tachycardia can be suppressed with a beta-adrenergic blocking agent. Alpha blockade can dilate the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa, producing nasal congestion. Because activation of alpha receptors is required for ejaculation (see 1 Table 11. This form of dysfunction is reversible and resolves when the alpha blocker is withdrawn. If a patient deems the adverse sexual effects of alpha blockade unacceptable, a change in medication will be required. Because males may be reluctant to discuss such concerns, a tactful interview may be needed to discern whether drug-induced sexual dysfunction is discouraging drug use. By reducing blood pressure, alpha blockers can promote renal retention of sodium and water, thereby causing blood volume to increase. The steps in this process are as follows: (1) by reducing blood pressure, alpha blockers decrease1 renal blood flow; (2) in response to reduced renal perfusion, the kidney excretes less sodium and water; and (3) the resultant retention of sodium and water increases blood volume. As a result, blood pressure is elevated, blood flow to the kidney is increased, and, as far as the kidney is concerned, all is well. Unfortunately, when alpha blockers are used to treat hypertension (which they often are), this compensatory elevation in blood pressure can negate beneficial effects. To prevent the kidney from “neutralizing” hypotensive actions, alpha- blocking agents are usually combined with a diuretic when used in patients with hypertension. Adverse Effects of Alpha Blockade2 The most significant adverse effect associated with alpha blockade is2 potentiation of the reflex tachycardia that can occur in response to blockade of alpha receptors. Recall1 2 that peripheral alpha receptors are located presynaptically and that activation of2 these receptors inhibits norepinephrine release. Because the reflex tachycardia caused by alpha blockade is ultimately the result of increased firing of the1 sympathetic nerves to the heart, and because alpha blockade will cause each2 nerve impulse to release a greater amount of norepinephrine, alpha blockade2 will potentiate reflex tachycardia initiated by blockade of alpha receptors. Properties of Individual Alpha Blockers Eight alpha-adrenergic antagonists are employed clinically. Because the alpha blockers often cause postural hypotension, therapeutic uses are limited. One group, represented by prazosin, contains drugs that produce selective alpha blockade. The results are dilation of1 arterioles and veins and relaxation of smooth muscle in the bladder neck (trigone and sphincter) and prostatic capsule. The drug undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism followed by excretion in the bile.
Co n s i d e r a t i o n s This elderly woman with small cell lung cancer presents in a stuporous state with hypotonic hyponatremia cheap 160mg tricor otc cholesterol ranges by age. She appears euvolemic purchase tricor 160mg line cholesterol content foods list, as she does not have findings sug- gest ive of eit h er volu m e over load ( ju gu lar ven ou s d ist en t ion or p er iph er al ed em a) or volume depletion buy generic speman 60 pills on-line. The most likely cause for her altered ment al st atus alteration is hyponatremia. The pat ient does not t ake medi- cat ion s; t h u s, wit h the sit u at ion of h yp ot on ic h yp on at r em ia in a euvolem ic st at e and wit h inappropriately concent rated urine, t he most likely et iology is inappro- priate antidiuretic hormone produced by the lung cancer. Because t his individual is stupor- ous and the sodium level is severely decreased, hypertonic saline is required with fairly rapid part ial correct ion. Also, t he t arget is not correct ion of t he sodium level t o normal (135 mmol/ L) but rather to a level of safety, such as 120 to 125 mmol/ L. Depending on the rapidity with which the hyponatremia develops, most patients do not have symp- toms until the serum sodium level is in the low 120 mmol/ L range. The clinical manifestations are related to osmotic water shifts leading to cerebral edema; thus, the symptoms are mainly neurologic. Early symptoms include headache, nausea, and vo m it in g; lat er sym p t o m s m ay p r o gr ess t o let h ar gy, co n fu sio n, seiz u r es, o r co m a. Serum sodium concentrations are important because they almost always reflect tonicity, the effect of extracellular fluid on cells that will cause the cells (eg, brain cells) t o swell ( h yp ot on icit y) or t o sh r in k ( h yp er t on icit y). For pu r p oses of this dis- cu ssion, we u se ser um osmolalit y as an in dicat or of t on icit y. Hypotonic hyponatremia always occurs because there is water gain, that is, impairment of free wat er excret ion. If one considers t hat t he normal kidney capac- it y t o excret e free wat er is approximat ely 18 t o 20 L/ d, it becomes apparent that it is very difficult t o overwh elm this capacit y solely t h rough excessive wat er int ake, as in psychogenic polydipsia. H yponat remia can also occur in cases of sodium loss, for example, as a con sequ en ce of diuret ic u se, or becau se of aldost eron e deficien cy. To determine the cause of the hypotonic hyponatremia, the physician must clini- cally assess the volume status of the patient by history and physical examination. A useful algorithm for assessment of patients with hyponatremia is seen in Figure 47– 1. A history of vomiting, diarrhea, or other losses, such as profuse sweating, suggests hypovolemia, as d o flat n eck vein s, dr y or al mu cou s m embr an es, an d dim in ish ed urine output. In cases of significant hypovolemia, there is a physiologic increase in p 7 Extra re na l los s e s Glucocorticoid deficiency Ac u te o r c h ro n ic Ne phrotic s yndrome. In hypovolemia, the kidney should be avidly retaining sodium, so the urine sodium level should be less than 20 mmol/ L. If the patient is hypovolemic, yet the urine sodium level is more than 20 mmol/ L, then kidneys do not have the ability to retain sodium normally. Either kidney function is impaired by the use of diuretics, or the kidney is lacking necessary hormonal stimulation, as in adrenal insufficiency, or there is a primary renal problem, such as tubular damage from acute tubular necrosis.
In animal studies order tricor 160 mg online cholesterol in shrimp mayo clinic, “therapeutic” doses of lithium doubled the level of neurotrophic Bcl-2 proteins generic 160 mg tricor amex cholesterol healthy range. In addition order on line brahmi, lithium has been shown to facilitate regeneration of damaged optic nerves. All of these studies suggest that the benefits of lithium may result at least in part from an ability to protect against neuronal atrophy or promote neuronal growth. Pharmacokinetics Absorption and Distribution Lithium is well absorbed after oral administration. Because of its short half-life (and high toxicity), the drug must be administered in divided daily doses. Large, single daily doses cannot be used, even when a slow-release preparation is prescribed. Because lithium is excreted by the kidneys, it must be employed with great care in patients with renal impairment. Specifically, lithium excretion is reduced when levels of sodium are low because the kidney processes lithium and sodium in the same way. Hence, when the kidney senses that sodium levels are inadequate, it retains lithium in an attempt to compensate. Because of this relationship, in the presence of low sodium, lithium can accumulate to toxic levels. Because diuretics promote sodium loss, these agents must be employed with caution. Also, sodium loss secondary to diarrhea can be sufficient to cause lithium accumulation. Dehydration will cause lithium retention by the kidneys, posing the risk for accumulation to dangerous levels. Monitoring Plasma Lithium Levels Measurement of plasma lithium levels is an essential component of treatment. When the desired therapeutic effect has been achieved, the dosage should be reduced to produce maintenance levels of 0. Blood for lithium determinations should be drawn in the morning, 12 hours after the evening dose. During maintenance therapy, lithium levels should be measured every 3 to 6 months. Adverse Effects The adverse effects of lithium can be divided into two categories: (1) effects that occur at excessive lithium levels and (2) effects that occur at therapeutic lithium levels. In the subsequent discussion, adverse effects produced at excessive lithium levels are considered as a group.