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The results of the study indicated that participants negotiated their need for medication internally (including struggles over self identity) and externally (through negotiations with health care providers) purchase lopid 300 mg on line treatment solutions. Interview data indicated that medication taking may prompt consumers to re-negotiate their self-identities as formerly well persons (Carder et al purchase lopid 300 mg with amex treatment magazine. When symptoms are under control betnovate 20gm fast delivery, they may question whether they are cured, in remission, or if the medication is treating symptoms. Some participants resisted taking medication because it conflicted with their identities as a healthy person or someone who normally did not take medication. Some participants stated that they reduced their intake of medication to curtail side effects or discover the dosage that best met their personal threshold for 56 symptom management. Regarding external negotiations, participants described both battling and working with their physicians over medications, including decisions regarding whether to take medication, type of medication, how much and by what route. Many of the participants had taken medication for years and, thus, knew what worked and did not work for them. One source of resistance derived from participants’ dissatisfaction with physicians who simply prescribe medications whenever the individual has new or additional symptoms, leading to complex medication regimens. In addition to the physical effects of taking medication for an extended period of time, some participants reported an emotional toll associated with the trial and error involved in finding the right medication regimen (Carder et al. Indeed, two participants with schizophrenia reported feeling like a “human experiment” as a result of the long process of finding the right medication or combination of medications (Carder et al. More recently, Shoemaker and Ramahlo de Oliveira (2008) conducted a study focussing on the meaning of medication for 41 consumers, which included participants with diagnoses of schizophrenia (as with the previous study, the number of participants with schizophrenia was, unfortunately, not reported). A meta-synthesis of three different but complementary qualitative studies was conducted by researchers, which included unstructured and in- depth interviews as parts of phenomenological and ethnographic studies. The authors defined the medication experience as an individual’s subjective experience of taking medication in their daily life. The meaning of medication was captured by four codes of the medication experience: a meaningful encounter; bodily effects; unremitting nature; and exerting control, which the authors considered reflected stages of the medication experience. The meaningful encounter can be revealed as a sense of losing control, a sign of ageing or a signifier of illness, and often causes questioning and a meeting with stigma. Whilst questioning the need for medication upon diagnosis is typically interpreted as resistance by health care professionals, the authors propose that for participants, it can represent a means of regaining a degree of control. Participants sensed that their individual autonomy was undermined when taking chronic medications until the point that they questioned the taken-for-granted notion that medications are the right option. The first reactions to initiating a medication regime can also be shaped by the social views of the medical condition, including stigma. The bodily effects of medications code was revealed as the experience of a “magic elixir” or trade-offs. Some participants indicated that medication could “normalise” them, whereas others indicated that medication alleviated them from incapacitation and, thus, enabled them to function. Participants who experienced side effects were willing to accept them as a trade-off if the benefit experienced by medication was sufficiently good.
Deﬁning Problems of Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Fluid balance and electrolyte disorders can be classiﬁed into distur- bances of (1) extracellular ﬂuid volume; (2) sodium concentration; and (3) composition (acid–base balance and other electrolytes) purchase cheap lopid on line treatment jock itch. When confronted with an existing problem of ﬂuid or electrolyte derange- ment order lopid with a mastercard symptoms quotes, it is helpful initially to analyze the issues of ﬂuid (water) and electrolyte imbalance separately purchase indinavir 400mg with mastercard. A high serum sodium (>145mEq/L) indicates a water deﬁcit, whereas low serum sodium (<135mEq/L) conﬁrms water excess. The sodium level provides no information about the body sodium content, merely the relative amounts of free water and sodium. If serum osmolarity is high, it is important to consider the inﬂuence of other osmotically active parti- cles, including glucose. Elevated glucose should be treated and will restore, at least partially, serum osmolarity. Water Excess Although water excess may coexist with either sodium excess or deﬁcit, the most common postoperative variant, hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, may develop slowly with minimal symptoms. Rapid development results in neurologic symptoms that may eventuate in convulsions and coma if not properly addressed as discussed in Case 1. Restriction of water intake often sufﬁces in that continued sensible and insensible losses will assure free water loss. Volume is low Replace volume deficit with isotonic saline or Volume is low lactated Ringer’s solution. Volume is normal Volume is increased Replace water deficit (no Consider administration more than half in first of a loop diuretic. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Disorders in the Surgery Patient 71 hyponatremia), a rise in serum sodium may be achieved by adminis- tration of the desired increase of sodium (in mEq/L) = 0. An uncommon but devastating complication of raising serum sodium too rapidly is central pontine demyelinating syn- drome. To prevent this complication, it is generally recommended that symptomatic patients receive one half of the calculated sodium dose (using hypertonic sodium solutions, such as 3% saline) over 8 hours to bring serum sodium into an acceptable range (120–125mEq/L), as would be appropriate in Case 1. Do not use hypotonic saline solutions until the serum sodium is in an acceptable range. The criteria for this diagnosis also include a reduced aldos- terone level with urine sodium >20mEq/L, serum< urine osmolarity, and the absence of renal failure, hypotension, or edema. It may occur from shed blood, loss of gastrointestinal ﬂuids, diarrhea, ﬁstulous drainage, or inadequate replacement of insensible losses. Similar to changes in conditions of water excess, a severe or rapidly developing deﬁcit of water may cause several symptoms (Table 4. Lab tests for serum sodium (>145mEq/L) and osmolarity (>300mOsm/L) establish the diagnosis. Water deﬁcit results from loss of hypotonic body ﬂuids without ade- quate replacement or intake of hypertonic ﬂuids without adequate sodium excretion. Patients with decreased mental status or those unable to regulate their water intake are prone to this problem. Once a diagnosis of water deﬁcit is entertained, evaluation of urine concentrations can be useful.
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An algorithm for assessment of ﬂuid status and acute sodium changes is shown in Algorithm 4 generic 300mg lopid with amex medications and grapefruit interactions. Sodium Deﬁcit In the surgical patient purchase lopid on line medicine to reduce swelling, this condition usually occurs via loss of sodium without adequate saline replacement carafate 1000mg. Several additional sources of sodium loss should be considered, including gastrointesti- nal ﬂuids and skin. Third-space losses of sodium (and water) also can be extensive after major injury or operation. The symptoms and signs of sodium deﬁcit arise from hypovolemia and reduced tissue perfu- sion. Under such circumstances, urine sodium is low (<15mEq/L) and osmolarity is increased (>450mOsm/L). If hypotension is present, this must be treated with normal saline or lactated Ringer’s 4. A mild sodium deﬁcit without symptoms may be treated over several days if the losses of sodium have been reduced. Administration of ﬂuids for water and sodium requires knowledge of the current ﬂuid and electrolyte status of the patient, understanding of the level of stress, and appreciation for actual or potential sources of ongoing ﬂuid and electrolyte losses. Having estimated the ﬂuid and sodium status of the patient, administration of appropriate volumes of water and sodium usually is done by the intravenous route. Standard solutions of known contents nearly always are used, and the prescrib- ing physician must be familiar with these basic formulas (Table 4. Abnormalities of other electrolytes (K, Ca, P, Mg: see Abnormalities of Electrolytes, below) usually require speciﬁc ﬂuid solutions or addition of these ions to standard solutions. Changes in acid–base balance also may require special alkalotic or acidotic solutions to correct these abnormalities (Tables 4. Solution 1 is made by taking 800mL of 5% D/W and adding four ampules of 50mL (200mL) of 7. Disorders of Composition By deﬁnition, composition changes include alterations in acid–base balance plus changes in concentration of potassium, calcium, magne- sium, and phosphate. Acid–Base Balance There are four major buffers in the body: proteins, hemoglobin, phos- phate, and bicarbonate. All serve to maintain the hydrogen ion con- centration within a physiologic range. Respiratory acid–base abnormalities are identiﬁed readily by determination of Paco2. By contrast, there are no deﬁnitive means to identify a “metabolic” acid–base abnormality. The ﬁrst is the concept of anion gap, which is used to iden- tify a nonvolatile or ﬁxed acid–base abnormality.