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The topic must have been in the forefront of people’s mind if physi- cians like Cogan often devote space in their widely read health ma- nuals to the debate on “whether it be lawefull to flie from the plague” (1584: 266); notably discount 100mg fildena fast delivery erectile dysfunction guidelines 2014, the adjective lawful in this context is used with reference to ethics effective 100 mg fildena erectile dysfunction 42, not laws purchase discount fildena on-line erectile dysfunction book. One party endorsed Galen’s teaching re- garding the crucial role of miasma in plague epidemics and the effica- cy of flight to avoid infection generic cytotec 100 mcg with mastercard, the other recalled Moses’ warning “flee whether thou wylte purchase cialis sublingual american express, in case thou take with thee the contempt of god and breache of his commaundement buy 100 mg zenegra with amex, god shall fynde thee out” (Hooper 1553: C1) and stressed providential and predestinarian views: “If it bee Gods will, you shall bee safe any where, if it be not Gods will, you shall be safe no where” (Pullein 1608: F2). Some texts aim to rouse sympathy for the abandoned diseased, as does the following passage which cen- sures the behaviour of those who flee infected areas. Fear of contagion 62 Paola Baseotto Hath rased out of their hearts, for the while, all affections of love and pity to their nearest Relations and dearest Friends; so that when the Disease hath first seized upon them, and they have had the greatest need of succour, they have left their friends in distress, and flown away from them, as if they had been their Enemies (Vincent 1667: 12). The official stand was that churchmen and magistrates should stay at their posts during epidemics, although they should not risk their lives by visiting the sick. Hooper’s warning that “bishops, vicars, curates” who abandon the sick “flee from goddes people into god’s high indig- nation” (1553: C2) seems reflective of the fact that clergymen in the Church of England very often fled (see Totaro 2005: 46). It is worth noting, as Wallis suggests (2006: 15), that on the occasion of out- breaks of plague many nonconformist clergymen who had been eject- ed from their parishes after the Restoration stayed in plague-infected areas to assist the diseased and preach, thus circumventing the statuto- ry prohibition of public preaching by the dissenting clergy. The tone of the many references to the stands of nonconforming preachers in official documents by the Privy Council and Church of England authorities seems to indicate a deep preoccupation with their impact on common people’s acceptance of medical care and com- pliance with government plague-control measures. The plague orders issued in 1603, which replicate those promulgated by Queen Elizabeth in 1578, are eloquent in this regard: If there be any person Ecclesiasticall or Lay, that shall hold and publish any opinions (as in some places report is made) that it is a vain thing to forbeare to resort to the Infected, or that it is not charitable to forbid the same, pretending that no person shall die but at their time prefixed, these persons shall be not only reprehended, but by order of the Bishop, if they be Ecclesiasticall, shall be forbidden to preach, and being Lay, shall also be enioyned to forbear to ut- ter such dangerous opinions upon pain of imprisonment. The correspondence between Bishop Grindal and Lord William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth’s Secretary of State, attests to a common worry and effort at opposing such views (1563: 270). While nonconformists tended to inflect passa- Ideological Uses of Medical Discourses in Early Modern English 63 ges of the Bible which seemed to endorse their predestinarian and providential views and laid great stress on extrapolations from Cal- vin’s wider teaching like “it is only in his hand to apoint lyfe or death: and therefore thys mater oght onely to be refferred to hys wil” (1561: F6), the mainstream Church of England clergy emphasized the abun- dant Scriptural evidence regarding the divine sanction of medical practices and recalled Calvin’s numerous and unambiguous references 10 to it. An obligatory element of their plague writings (as of those, it should be noted, by medical and lay authors) is a reminder of the reite- ration throughout the Bible of God’s blessing on healing plants and remedies used by physicians who thus function as instruments of divine mercy. All authors quoted from Ecclesiasticus (Book of Sirach) 38 which opens with the exhortation “Honour the physician for the need thou hast of him: for the most High hath created him” then speci- fies that “all healing is from God. Vehement attacks on preachers holding the opposite view are penned by influential churchmen like John Sanford who admonishes that those who trust only in “God’s protection” and “neglect the good meanes of [their] preseruation” become “homicides and willfull mur- therers” of themselves (1604: 50). The inclusion and prominence of such warnings in the various editions of official prayers for universal reading and repetition endow them with the quality of expressions of the official stand of the national Church. The tone of these pronounce- ments is often harsh and lapidary as in a reference to the attitude of those who refuse medicaments and stay in infected places trusting that their faith will save them: “this is not faith in God, but a grosse, igno- v rant, and foole-hardy presumption” (Church of England 1603: D1 ). While, as Slack notes (1985: 230), Nowell’s homily in the first edition of the official plague prayers urged godly submission to God’s will and endorsed ─ at least partly ─ providential interpretations of and attitudes to plague, the “Exhortation” in the third edition of 1603 stressed the role of contagion requiring containment measures and of- fered a particularly forceful statement of ecclesiastical energetic back- 10 On Calvin’s and more generally the Anglican Church’s endorsement of medi- cal practices see Harley (1993). A general reference to the efficacy and legitimacy of com- pliance with health regulations, “the good use of ordinarie meanes, and the wary and carefull carriage of our selues out of the danger of contagion” is followed by exposure of the ungodliness of opposite approaches: “the desperate securitie of those, that seeme neither to feare, nor to flie from this infection, is but a tempting and prouoking of the iudgement of God”. Their behaviour makes them guilty of “willfull murder both of themselues, their children, their families, and neighbours, which hatefull crueltie against their owne kind, Turkes and infidels would abhorre.

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