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Intervention Full details of the intervention have been published in the trial protocol and a paper describing the intervention mapping procedures singulair 10mg sale asthma medications list. Steps 5 and 6 of the intervention mapping process involved feasibility and piloting order singulair 5 mg mastercard asthma inhaler brands. HeLP was a theory-based levlen 0.15mg otc, multicomponent, school-based obesity prevention intervention delivered to all Year 5 children (aged 9–10 years) in a school. It consists of four phases delivered during three school terms, which have been ordered to enable and support behaviour change. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 9 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. Schools that expressed interest in participating were purposely sampled to represent a range of number of Year 5 classes (1–3 Year 5 classes), locations (urban and rural) and deprivation (< 19% and ≥ 19% of children eligible for free school meals). After randomisation to intervention or control, schools were allocated to cohort 1 or cohort 2 by a statistician from the Clinical Trials Unit, with equal numbers of intervention and control schools in both cohorts. Physical activity data from a subset of children while they were still at primary school, 18 months post baseline, were objectively assessed 10 24-month measures Anthropometric measures were collected by trained independent assessors, blinded to group allocation, after children had moved to secondary school (secondary schools had a mix of children from intervention and control schools), 24 months post baseline (12 months post intervention) FIQ, Food Intake Questionnaire. The co-ordinators were also responsible for delivering components of the programme (Tables 2 and 3) and for building relationships with schools, children and families. It was believed that having one key contact person for each school would be crucial in building and strengthening relationships with teachers, children and parents during the 1-year intervention period and would increase engagement with the programme, which was believed to be necessary for behaviour change to occur. The HeLP co-ordinator liaised with the school administrators, head teachers and teachers to discuss the programme and arrange timings for delivery at each intervention school. The teachers were provided with easy-to- read information leaflets at appropriate points throughout the intervention delivery period to ensure that they were aware of upcoming activities. A picture of the HeLP co-ordinator and their contact details were put up at the reception desk. TABLE 2 Intervention phases 1 and 2, function, BCTs, delivery methods and personnel Component (frequency Delivery Phase Function BCTs and duration) personnel Phase 1 l Establish relationships l Provide information on Whole school assembly HeLP co-ordinators with schools, children behaviour–health link (1 × 20 minutes) Creating a and families l Provide information on supportive l Raise awareness and health–behaviour link Newsletter article HeLP co-ordinators context increase knowledge l Modelling/ l Promote positive demonstrating Literacy lesson (to create Class teacher Spring term attitudes and norms behaviour HeLP rap) (1 × 1 hour) (Year 5) towards healthy eating l Prompt identification as January–March and physical activity a role model Activity workshops Professional l Increase self-efficacy l Provide information on (2 × 1. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 11 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS TABLE 3 Intervention phases 3 and 4, function, BCTs, delivery methods and personnel Component (frequency Delivery Phase Function BCTs and duration) personnel Phase 3 l Increase awareness of l Self-monitoring Self-reflection HeLP co-ordinator own behaviour l Goal setting questionnaire Personal goal l Increase self-efficacy (behaviour) (1 × 40 minutes) setting with for change l Problem-solving/ parental support l Develop planning barrier identification Goal-setting sheet to go HeLP co-ordinator/ skills l Plan social support home to parents to parents Summer term l Increase parental l Provide information on complete with child (Year 5), support where and when to (1 × 10 minutes) June–July perform a behaviour l Agree behavioural One-to-one HeLP co-ordinator contract goal-setting interview l Prompt identification as (1 × 10 minutes) (goals a role model sent home to parents) Forum theatre assembly HeLP co-ordinator/ (1 × 1 hour) drama group Phase 4 l Increase self-awareness l Provide information on Education lesson Class teacher and prioritise healthy health–behaviour link (1 × 1 hour) Reinforcement goals l Modelling/demonstrating activities l Consolidate social behaviour Drama workshop Drama group support l Prompt identification as (1 × 1 hour), followed Autumn term l Develop self-monitoring a role model by a class-delivered HeLP co-ordinator (Year 6), and coping skills l Provide social approval assembly about the September– l Increase parental l Prompt self-monitoring project to rest of school December support l Prompt intention (1 × 20 minutes) formation l Follow-up prompts One-to-one HeLP co-ordinator l Prompt review of goal-supporting behavioural goals interview to discuss l Prompt barrier facilitators/barriers identification and and to plan new resolution coping strategies l Coping plans (1 × 10 minutes) (renewed goals sent home to parents) BCT, behaviour change technique. Professional sports people and dancers came to the schools to run practical workshops and introduce the importance of healthy lifestyles. At the end of this phase, children showcased the skills they had learnt in a parent assembly, during which the HeLP co-ordinator gave parents further information about the programme. Table 4 lists the learning objectives for each education and drama session.
Complex segregation analysis with The New York high-risk project purchase singulair 4mg on-line asthma treatment guidelines. Complex segregation analysis of quantitative traits discount singulair express asthma definition ethics. Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits: I buy discount differin 15 gr line. Science of multilocus models: the genetic transmission of bipolar disor- 1996;274:536–539. A combined analysis of age studies of complex traits: an examination of variation in D22s278 marker alleles in affected sib-pairs—support for a sus- location estimates. Affected-sib-pair inter- J Med Genet 1996;67:40–45 val mapping and exclusion for complex genetic traits—sampling 87. Genetic analysis of complex mosome-8—a multicenter study. Suggestive evidence for tary strategies for complex disorders. J Med Genet 1993;30: linkage of schizophrenia to markers on chromosome 13q14. Comparison of statistics for candidate 1998;20:70–73. Linkage of Genet 1994;55:402–409 familial schizophrenia to chromosome 13q32. The relative power of family-based and case- 1999;65:1096–1103. Genome Res 1998;8: of a locus on chromosome 5q31 contributing to susceptibility 1273–1288 for schizophrenia in German and Israeli families by multipoint 114. Positive association be- affected sib-pair linkage analysis. Mol Psychiatry 1997;2: tween a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor 156–160, gene and schizophrenia. Association between schizophrenia vulnerability locus in region 5q22-31 in Irish schizophrenia and T102C polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryp- families. A family-based associa- some 18p locus conferring susceptibility to functional psychoses tion study of T102C polymorphism in 5-HT2Aand schizophre- in families with schizophrenia, by association and linkage analy- nia plus identification of new polymorphisms in the promoter. Results of the NIMH association between the 5-HT2a receptor T102C polymor- Genetics Initiative and Millennium Consortium. Mol Brain Res 1998;59:90–92 may be located in region 10p15-p11. A meta-analysis and confirmation in an independent series of pedigrees. Genomics transmission disequilibrium study of association between the 1997;43:1–8. The molecular genetics of schizo- major susceptibility locus for familial schizophrenia on chromo- phrenia.
However purchase singulair with mastercard asthmatic bronchitis vs pneumonia, results relating to this candidate higher alcohol intake either directly or through ASPD discount 10mg singulair with amex asthma treatment review, de- have not been replicated in genome scans discount clarinex on line, and there are as pressive disorders, schizophrenia, or anxiety disorders. Find- many nonconfirmatory studies as there are positive ones (6, ings include a high receptor density for 5-HT1Aor a decrease 119). Additional interest has been expressed regarding the in 5-HT1B activity in alcohol-preferring rats, with 5-HT1B D4 receptor and several alleles of the DA transporter, but knockout mice demonstrating higher levels of alcohol intake with conflicting results (120,121). Turning to a second family of receptors, there is evidence of a decrease in 5-HT2C receptor sensitivity in GABA, Norepinephrine (NE), and Monoamine alcoholics, along with a potential increase in the density of Oxidase (MAO) these proteins in the hippocampus in alcohol-preferring rats This subsection briefly reviews several markers that might (108). A third family has also been implicated through the relate to the alcoholism risk. GABA, a ubiquitous inhibitory actions of the 5-HT3 receptor, which promotes the release neurotransmitter, has an important role in several condi- of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens in the context of tions possibly related to the alcoholism risk including anxi- alcohol (6,109). There are multiple GABA receptors, with special 5-HT in platelets, perhaps indicating a lower level of 5- interest for alcohol intoxication or withdrawal for the esti- HT in the synapse that might relate to LR (110). This is mated 13 or more subunits for the GABA receptor com- A consistent with lower LR to alcohol in the offspring who plex (6,32,122). Alcohol-dependent men and women have have the l-allele of the 5-HTT (32). Finally, a drug that a decreased density of GABA receptors, and might show A antagonizes activity of the 5-HT3receptor, ondansetron, decreased responses to lorazepam in frontal brain regions both decreases subjective feelings of intoxication with alco- and in the basal ganglia, while demonstrating abnormal re- hol and decreases alcohol intake in alcoholics and their rela- sponses to a benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (123, tives (109). A diminished response to brain depressants might occur with a common mutation of the GABAA 6 receptor, The Potential Importance of Dopamine (DA) which might also reflect a low LR to alcohol (32,122). In addition, a possible predisposition toward alcohol depen- This neurotransmitter has broad effects in the brain, includ- dence might link to an area of chromosome 4 near genes ing in the mesolimbic system where it functions as a media- noted to have an impact on GABA functioning (32,125). DA impacts on the risk for Monoamines, including 5-HT, NE, and DA, are metab- heavy drinking and alcoholism through potentially diverse olized in part by MAO. Alcoholics, especially those with mechanisms including the reinforcing effects of the drug, concomitant ASPD, might demonstrate low MAO activi- personality characteristics, and via several psychiatric disor- ties, perhaps reflecting alternate forms of genes, although ders. Ethanol causes the release of DA in the mesolimbic sys- Finally, alcoholics, especially those with multiple alco- tem, affects DA neurons in the ventral tegmentum, and the holic relatives, might have a blunted hormonal response to reinforcement from alcohol decreases when DA antagonists drugs that have impact on NE, especially during withdrawal are given (6,111,112). There might be a general decrease and early abstinence (127). Thus, NE might also increase in overall DA functioning among more violent alcoholics, the alcoholism risk through vulnerability for panic and other as evidenced by lower levels of DA metabolites in the CSF, anxiety disorders. As discussed in Chapter 99, Asian men and women who lack the low km, mitochondrial AN ATTEMPT TO SYNTHESIZE THESE DATA ALDH (i. Heterozygotes enced characteristics that may be relevant to the alcoholism with the ALDH2-1, 2-2 genotype produce higher acetalde- risk.
Clinical efficacy of sion of substance use disorders buy singulair 4mg line asthma treatment advair. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998;55: the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron in alcohol abuse and depen- 973–979 5mg singulair sale asthma symptoms burning lungs. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcohol- DC: NIAAA purchase 25mg unisom otc, 1998;39:1–4. Nucleotide sequence diver- analysis of the use of tobacco, alcohol and caffeine in a popula- sity in non-coding regions of ALDH2 as revealed by restriction tion-based sample of male and female twins. Heavy consumption of functional polymorphisms of the alcohol-metabolism genes in cigarettes, alcohol and coffee in male twins. Linkage disequilibrium at bility for nicotine and alcohol dependence in men. Arch Gen the ADH2 and ADH3 loci and risk of alcoholism. Aldehyde dehydrogenase nergic transmission in the mesolimbic system. Neuropharmacol- deficiency as cause of facial flushing reaction to alcohol in Japa- ogy 1999;38(8):1195–205. Alcohol metabolism and HT3 receptor down-regulation by ondansetron administered cardiovascular response in an alcoholic patient homozygous for during continuous cocaine administration. Alcohol consumption by orientals in North HT3 receptor involvement in alcohol dependence: a microdia- America is predicted largely by a single gene. Behav Genet 1995; lysis study of nucleus accumbens dopamine and serotonin re- 25(1):59–65. In: Lowinson JH, Ruiz York: Plenum Press, 1993;14:231–248. Neurobiological similarities in Jewish men in Israel: a pilot study. J Stud Alcohol 1998;59(2): in depression and drug dependence: a self medication hypothe- 133–139. High levels of sensitivity 1422 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress to alcohol in young adult Jewish men: a pilot study. J Stud related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter Alcohol 1991;52(5):464–469. Role of the seroto- are determinants of alcohol pharmacokinetics. Alcohol Clin Exp nin transporter promoter polymorphism in anxiety-related Res 1995;19(6):1494–1499.