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By: Terry L. Schwinghammer, PharmD, FCCP, FASHP, FAPhA, BCPS Arthur I. Jacknowitz Distinguished Chair in Clinical Pharmacy and Chair, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, West Virginia University School of Pharmacy, Morgantown, West Virginia
Sitagliptin does not increase insulin signifcant risk reduction of developing diabetic ne- secretion when blood glucose drops below about phropathy purchase apcalis sx without prescription shakeology erectile dysfunction. Long-term use may interfere with vitamin stream cheap apcalis sx 20mg online erectile dysfunction tucson, exerting effects on broadly distributed target B absorption generic 20mg apcalis sx overnight delivery erectile dysfunction fun facts. Nausea and breast tender- ness are among the most common adverse effects of 64 The answer is B: Insulin glargine buy viagra jelly on line. In addition buy cheap levitra soft 20 mg on line, the risk of thromboembolic the body to pull glucose from the blood into their Endocrine Pharmacology 149 cytoplasm. Long-acting insulin preparations such as insu- 67 The answer is E: This patient has a high risk of thrombo- lin glargine produce a much lower peak and provide embolism. Estrogen is known to increase the risk of a low, baseline insulin level throughout the day and thromboembolism. It would not provide a long- The physician’s best choice would be to prescribe a lasting baseline insulin level. It would not no personal or family history of breast or endometrial provide as good baseline insulin coverage as insulin cancer. It would not provide as good and headaches in patients who drink alcohol because baseline insulin coverage as insulin glargine. This effect, however, is short for thromboembolism would present a serious health lived, so calcitonin should be combined with bisphos- concern. Colesevelam would not be this case, the patient would beneft most from inhibit- an effective measure to lower this patient’s calcium ing infammation. Arachidonic acid, in turn, is released from cell with recurrent kidney stones because it decreases membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholi- urinary calcium, but it increases serum calcium. Glucocorticoids stimulate the production (D) Teriparatide is a recombinant form of parathyroid molecules that inhibit phospholipase A2 to decrease hormone. Prolonged exposure (as in gen and progesterone have contraceptive effects ther- Cushing’s syndrome) can lead to skin weakening and apeutically. It is rapidly absorbed and has 150 Chapter 4 a short duration of action of 10 to 20 minutes because 72 The answer is E: Increased triglycerides. Intravenous Colesevelam has the unfortunate side effect of injection of edrophonium leads to a rapid increase in increasing triglycerides. This Colesevelam actually lowers blood glucose and hemo- makes it possible for them to easily diffuse across globin A1c levels by an unknown mechanism. It is a bile need not be found on the cell surface, although acid–binding resin that sequesters bile acids in the gut some are. Steroid hormone receptors can also be lumen to prevent their reuptake and recycling, which found in the nucleus, but most are found in the forces the liver to synthesize new bile acids by pulling cytoplasm.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs order cheap apcalis sx line impotence 36, such as diclofenac and indometacin order apcalis sx without a prescription erectile dysfunction effects, are also ef- fective; on occasion discount apcalis sx 20 mg amex erectile dysfunction at the age of 28, glucocorticoids may be of additional help purchase viagra professional overnight. Under these con- Therapeutic Approaches ditions generic levitra 10 mg without a prescription, body weight will drop slowly; dra- In industrialized nations, a significant por- matic changes of several kilograms in a few tion of the population is overweight. Values Most anorexiantsare derivativesof metham- > 30 are indicative of an overweight condi- phetam inethathavebeenwithdrawnfrom tion. A different mechanism of action disturbed energy balance: caloric intake ex- is involved in the case of an inhibitor of ceeds consumption. Almost unavoidably, ex- pancreatic lipase, which is required in the cess body weight and obesity lead to dis- intestines for fat absorption. These metabolism gives rise to atherosclerosis (an- symptoms correspond exactly to those seen gina pectoris, inadequate cerebral blood in pancreatic hypofunction which are then flow, etc. Before stress, weight-bearing joints suffer, resulting an obese person submits to treatment with in arthrotic complaints. Finally, obesity gives orlistat, he or she should voluntarily reduce rise to psychological problems that may the food fat content by one half to live free of overwhelm the coping ability of both adults such unpleasant adverse effects. In summary, the obese individual has no The treatment of obesity—and it should choice but to normalize the energy balance be treated to safeguard normal life expec- under sympathetic guidance and by strength tancy—is extraordinarily dif cult. Not until the obese individual, after suf cient counseling, real- izes that he or she needs to make a change in lifestyle and can then muster suf cient self- discipline to stick to the “new life,” will a returntonormalbodyweightandprotection from secondary diseases be achieved. Requi- site changes include a diet low in fat with reduced caloric content (~1000 kcal/day), no snacks (sweets, potato chips, lemonades, beer, etc. Long-term hormone replacement tent and is associated with a change in spon- therapy should no longer be carried out. This condition predis- If osteoporosis has become clinically poses to collapse of vertebral bodies and manifest, attempts can be made at improv- bone fractures with trivial trauma (e. Stim- During phagocytosis of the bone matrix, they ulation occurs by direct cell-to-cell contact are taken up by osteoclasts. The These processes are inhibited by estrogens result is a reduction in bone resorption and a and a protein secreted by osteoblasts (osteo- decreased risk of bone fractures. The osteoclast creates an acidic Raloxifene exerts an estrogen-like effect milieu, enabling minerals to be solubilized, on bone, while acting as an estrogen antag- and then phagocytoses the organic matrix. In terms of fracture prophylaxis, its effec- In hypocalcemia, the parathyroid in- tiveness appears inferior to that of bis- creases its secretion of parathormone,re- phosphonates. Calcitonin given therapeutically tent slight elevation in the plasma concen- relieves pain associated with neoplastic tration of parathormone leads to increased bone metastases and vertebral body col- formation of bone substance. Estrogens diminish bone resorption planation is that, under this condition, stim- by (a) inhibiting activation of osteoclasts by ulation of osteoblasts is suf cient to induce osteoblasts and (b) promoting apoptosis of synthesis of bone matrix but not strong osteoclasts. This strategy Idiopathic osteoporosis cannot be pre- is applied therapeutically by administration vented by prophylactic therapy, but its de- ofafragm ent(am inoacids1–34)ofre- velopment can be delayed. This requires: a combinant human parathormone (teripara- healthy lifestyle with plenty of physical ex- tide, s.
It helps with the symptoms of ulcerative colitis tion that this patient is not taking his medications by decreasing the immune response cheap 20 mg apcalis sx otc erectile dysfunction anxiety. There are many molecule that stimulates leukocyte activation buy cheap apcalis sx 20 mg line erectile dysfunction drugs class, bone ways to get around this problem order apcalis sx 20 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction natural remedies over the counter herbs, including supposi- reabsorption purchase januvia paypal, and cartilage degradation kamagra chewable 100mg otc. In rheumatoid arthritis, these effects include It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and bone and cartilage destruction in the joints. Infammation, Immune Pharmacology, and Toxicology 271 (E) Pilocarpine is used in the treatment of glaucoma. This results in the accumu- lation of acetaldehyde in the blood, causing fushing, 22 The answer is A: Blockade of adenosine receptors. Disulfram Several mechanisms have been proposed for the has found some use in the patient seriously desiring actions of methylxanthines, including translocation of to stop alcohol ingestion. A conditioned avoidance extracellular calcium, increase in cyclic adenosine response is induced so that the patient abstains monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophos- from alcohol to prevent the unpleasant effects of phate caused by inhibition of phosphodiesterase, and disulfram-induced acetaldehyde accumulation. Ototoxicity, which acting opiate antagonist that should be used in con- often presents as tinnitus, is a known side effect of junction with supportive psychotherapy. This is especially is better tolerated than disulfram and does not pro- true when given with other ototoxic drugs (such as duce the aversive reaction that disulfram does. It may aminoglycoside antibiotics), in patients with renal work well in this patient who had diffculty taking disease, when given in high doses, or with rapid intra- aldehyde dehydrogenase. Chelating agents are which normally causes sodium reabsorption in the (usually) organic compounds that can form multiple distal tubule. However, this agent has numerous undesirable side 25 The answer is C: Inhibits conversion of lanosterol to effects (such as anticholinergic effects) that it is less ergosterol. Sporothrix and other 272 Chapter 7 fungi stabilize their cell membranes with ergosterol not caused by an oxygen–hemoglobin concentration (which is not found in humans) in the same way that defcit. The short itraconazole inhibit a fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme duration of anesthetic action is caused by the decrease responsible for the last step in ergosterol synthesis: of barbiturate concentration in the brain to a level conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol. These and amphotericin B are examples of antifungals that drugs may remain in the body for relatively long peri- disrupt the fungal cell membrane by binding ergos- ods of time after their administration, because only terol and causing pore formation. Itraconazole does about 15% of the dose of barbiturates entering the not lead to membrane pore formation. Itraconazole does not inhibit squalene monooxygen- 29 The answer is B: Improved intestinal circular muscle ase. Overall, mor- phine and other narcotics produce constipation, with 26 The answer is B: Hepatic necrosis. There are toxic reactions combination of the stool softener docusate with the that some patients (especially females) develop after stimulant laxative senna has been used successfully to halothane anesthesia. To avoid this condition, halo- thane anesthesia is not repeated at intervals of less 30 The answer is B: Constipation. Physical and psychological dependence readily occur with morphine and with some of the other agonists. Recent investi- order elimination, meaning the same amount is gations have identifed a dramatic increase in the eliminated per unit time regardless of its concentra- myoplasmic calcium ion concentration.
Other adverse effects are similar are related to its effects on microsomal drug metabo- to those of drugs with the same mechanism of action buy 20mg apcalis sx otc erectile dysfunction treatment wikipedia, lism generic apcalis sx 20 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction drugs in ghana. Carbamazepine can induce its own metabolism such as cerebellovestibular changes leading to dizziness discount 20 mg apcalis sx amex top 10 causes erectile dysfunction, (autoinduction) after prolonged administration order 10 mg levitra otc, de- diplopia generic cialis professional 20 mg with amex, ataxia, and blurred vision. Disseminated in- creasing its clearance rate, half-life, and serum concen- travascular coagulation has been reported. The possibility of autoinduction requires the clinician to reevaluate the patient’s blood levels after a Topiramate month of carbamazepine therapy. Topiramate is most useful in patients with generalized Carbamazepine also can induce the enzymes that tonic–clonic seizures and those with partial complex metabolize other anticonvulsant drugs, including seizures. Similarly, other cause a signiﬁcant incidence of rashes or other hyper- drugs may induce metabolism of carbamazepine; the sensitivity reactions; however, a signiﬁcantly higher in- end result is the same as for autoinduction, and the dose cidence of kidney stones has been observed in persons of carbamazepine must be readjusted. A common receiving topiramate than in a similar untreated popu- drug–drug interaction is between carbamazepine and lation. After a few days of antibiotic therapy, symp- Zonisamide toms of carbamazepine toxicity develop; this is readily Zonisamide has only recently been approved for use in reversible if either the antibiotic or carbamazepine is the United States, although it has been available in discontinued. It is effective in partial complex Cimetidine, propoxyphene, and isoniazid also have and generalized tonic–clonic seizures and also appears been reported to inhibit metabolism of carbamazepine. It has a It is essential to monitor blood levels and adjust the long half-life (about 60 hours) and requires about 2 dose if necessary whenever additional drugs are given weeks to achieve steady-state levels. In addi- Oxcarbazepine tion, it appears to cause an increased incidence of kid- Oxcarbazepine is chemically and pharmacologically ney stones. This Valproic Acid (Sodium Valproate) property decreases the problems associated with drug Although it is marketed as both valproic acid interactions when oxcarbazepine is used in combination (Depakene) and as sodium valproate (Depakote), it is with other drugs. The clinical uses and adverse effect the valproate ion that is absorbed from the gastroin- proﬁle of oxcarbazepine appear to be similar to those of testinal tract and is the active form. This com- Lamotrigine pound has broad anticonvulsant activity, both in exper- Lamotrigine has a broad spectrum of action and is ef- imental studies and in the therapeutic management of fective in generalized and partial epilepsies. Valproic acid has been shown to block mechanism of action appears to be blockage of voltage- voltage-dependent sodium channels at therapeutically dependent sodium channels, although its effectiveness relevant concentrations. Although there have been some dis- ters the brain from the circulation; the subsequent de- appointments, in general this appears to be a fruitful cline in brain concentration parallels that in plasma, in- approach in the search for better and safer antiepileptic dicating equilibration between brain and capillary compounds. A large number of metabolites have been identi- ﬁed, but it is not known whether they play a role in the Benzodiazepines anticonvulsant effect of the parent drug. Valproic acid inhibits the metabolism of several drugs, including phe- Several benzodiazepines are used in the management of nobarbital, primidone, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, epileptic seizures, although only a few are approved for leading to an increased blood level of these compounds. At high doses, valproic acid can inhibit its own metabo- Since the benzodiazepines share many properties, they lism. It can also displace phenytoin from binding sites will be discussed as a class; individual members will be on plasma proteins, with a resultant increase in un- mentioned for speciﬁc indications.