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Peplau’s Process of Practice-based Theory Development and Its Applications 63 covering process were identiﬁed extra super levitra 100mg cheap erectile dysfunction due to zoloft. Interventions that negative thoughts focused primarily on self buy extra super levitra online erectile dysfunction doctor new jersey, being assisted patients in recovering instilled hope were different extra super levitra 100mg mastercard erectile dysfunction vacuum pump reviews, disappointing self and others order kamagra polo 100 mg fast delivery, not being psychoeducational in nature cipro 500mg free shipping, included cognitive in- perfect, and always failing. The women described terventions that change thinking styles, and pro- their self-talk as constant, negative, and demeaning. They identiﬁed various means of managing the Peden’s study (1996) concluded with the realiza- negative thoughts. Once again, the use of afﬁrma- tion that more information was needed on the tions, positive self-talk, and learning to change symptom of negative thinking. To understand a thinking were identiﬁed as reducing negative think- phenomenon, one must analyze its etiology, its ing. Steps one and two of the process of practice- cause, its meaning, and any clues to successful in- based theory development had provided direction tervention (Peplau, 1989c). At the suggestion of for moving into the third step, design of an inter- Peplau (personal communication, January 16, vention. A six-week group intervention was designed specif- ically to incorporate cognitive-behavioral tech- Negative Thinking niques to assist in reducing negative thinking in A qualitative study (Peden, 2000) was designed to depressed women. As described earlier, thought describe the nature or inherent quality of negative stopping and positive self-talk (or afﬁrmations) thoughts, their content or subject matter, and the were identiﬁed as key strategies in reducing nega- origins of the negative thoughts experienced by tive thoughts. The participants speciﬁc content from Gordon and Tobin’s (1991) also shared strategies they used to manage the neg- Insight program, Copeland’s (1992) The Depression ative thoughts. The sample consisted of six women Workbook, and the investigator’s own clinical expe- with a diagnosis of major depression who were ex- riences with depressed women. Afﬁrmations, direct periencing or had experienced negative thoughts actions, thought stopping, and information on dis- and were willing to talk about the experiences. The torted thinking styles were introduced to the group women participated in a series of six group inter- members. Guided by Peplau’s (1952) theory of in- views, the purpose of which was to elicit negative terpersonal nursing, the introduction of cognitive- views/thoughts held by the group participants. The behavioral techniques did not occur until the group interviews focused on the women’s life expe- second group session. The focus of the ﬁrst week riences, views of self and significant others, was on enhancing the development of the nurse- lifestyles, and past experiences. Codes were derived from available literature and To pilot-test the intervention, 13 women with were based on recommendations from Peplau (per- a diagnosis of major depression were randomly sonal communication, January 16, 1993) and other assigned either to a control or to an experimental codes that emerged from the initial review of the group.
Lung capillaries Chapter 11 Keeping Up Your Defenses: The Lymphatic System In This Chapter Delving into lymphatic ducts Noodling around with nodes Exploring the lymphatic organs ou see it every rainy day — water extra super levitra 100 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction protocol scam alert, water everywhere 100mg extra super levitra with amex erectile dysfunction foods, rushing along gutters and down Ystorm drains into a complex underground system that most would rather not give a second thought order generic extra super levitra canada erectile dysfunction test yourself. Well cheap malegra dxt plus on line, it’s time to give hidden drainage systems a second thought: Your body has one purchase sildenafil 100mg with mastercard. Interstitial or extracellular fluid moves in and around the body’s tissues and cells constantly. It leaks out of blood capillaries at the rate of nearly 51 pints a day, carrying various substances to and away from the smallest nooks and crannies. But the one or two liters of extra fluid that remain around the tissues become a substance called lymph that needs to be managed to maintain fluid balance in the internal environment. That’s where the lymphatic system steps in, forming an alternative route for the return of tissue fluid to the bloodstream. It’s a body-wide filter that traps and destroys invading microorganisms as part of the body’s immune response network. It can remove impurities from the body, help absorb and digest excess fats, and maintain a stable blood volume despite varying environmental stresses. We bet that you won’t take your little lymph nodes for granted anymore after you’re done with this chapter. Duct, Duct, Lymph The story of the lymphatic system (shown in Figure 11-1) begins deep within the body’s tis- sues at the farthest reaches of blood capillaries, where nutrients, plasma, and plasma pro- teins move out into cells, while waste products like carbon dioxide and the fluid carrying those molecules move back in through a process known as diffusion. Roughly 10 percent of the fluid that leaves the capillaries remains deep within the tissues as part of the interstitial (meaning “between the tissues”) fluid. But in order for the body to maintain sufficient volume of water within in the circulatory system, eventually this plasma and its protein must get back into the blood. So the lymphatic vessels act as a recycling system to gather, trans- port, cleanse, and return this fluid to the bloodstream. To collect the fluid, minute vessels called lymph capillaries are woven throughout the body, with a few caveats and exceptions. There are no lymph capillaries in the central nervous system, teeth, outermost layer of the skin, certain types of cartilage, any other avascular tissue, and bones. And because bone marrow makes lymphocytes, which we explain in the next section, it’s considered part of the lymphatic system. Plus, lacteals (lymphatic capillaries found in the villi of the intes- tines) absorb fats to mix with lymph, forming a milky fluid called chyle. Made up of loosely overlapping endothelial cells anchored by fine filaments, lymph capillaries behave as if their walls are made of cellular one-way valves.
Varicose veins result from damage to the valves or vein walls cheap extra super levitra 100mg without a prescription zinc erectile dysfunction treatment, leading to pooling of blood generic extra super levitra 100mg visa erectile dysfunction other names, vein swelling purchase extra super levitra 100 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction pumps side effects, and increased venous pressure 100 mcg fluticasone. These veins spread out on the surface of the skin in a web-like fashion buy 50mg kamagra overnight delivery, hence their name. Varicose veins are not life threatening; however, they can increase the risk of developing a blood clot, which is a serious concern. Other factors that may contribute to or worsen varicose veins include: exposure to ex- cessive heat, use of birth control pills or estrogen, and wearing high-heeled shoes. Blood is rerouted through other veins and the damaged vein is absorbed by the body. Bypass: An artiﬁcial or transplanted vein is connected to the damaged vein to help improve blood ﬂow. Compression stockings: These specially designed stockings provide ﬁrm support to improve blood ﬂow back to the heart and prevent swelling in the legs. The incidence of varicose veins is higher in developed (Western) countries due to life- style factors: poor diet (low ﬁbre), lack of activity, and obesity. The best food sources are fruits, vegetables, whole grains (oats and bran), legumes, nuts, and seeds (ﬂaxseed and sunﬂower seeds). Foods to avoid: • Saturated fats (animal fats) and trans fats (fast food and processed food) can impede circulation in both the veins and arteries, cause free radical damage, and trigger inﬂam- mation. Activities that involve movement of the calf muscle will help pump blood back to the heart. Move around, ﬂex your ankles, circle your foot, do calf raises, and shift your body weight. Top Recommended Supplements Diosmin: A ﬂavonoid that improves the tone and strength of the blood vessels, reduces swelling, ﬁghts free-radical damage, and stimulates lymphatic ﬂow. Diosmin has a quick onset of action (one to two weeks) and is not associated with any side effects or drug interactions. Horse chestnut seed extract: Promotes circulation, improves vein wall tone, and relieves V swelling. It may cause nausea and upset stomach and can enhance the effect of blood-thinning medications. Pine bark extract: A ﬂavonoid that offers antioxidant activity, strengthens capillaries, improves circulation, and supports the integrity of collagen and elastin (proteins in connec- tive tissue that support organs, joints, blood vessels, and muscles). In addition to diosmin and pine bark, other antioxidants to consider are vitamins C and E, bilberry, and grape seed extract. Butcher’s Broom: Improves the strength and tone of the veins, acts as a mild diuretic, and has mild anti-inﬂammatory effects. Boost intake of ﬁbre and antioxidant-rich foods, and reduce your intake of satu- rated fats, processed foods, and sodium.
Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies 2 Foolish Assumptions In writing Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies order extra super levitra paypal erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy, we had to make some assumptions about you order extra super levitra without prescription erectile dysfunction raleigh nc, the reader discount 100 mg extra super levitra with mastercard erectile dysfunction best treatment. If any of the following apply generic 20 mg forzest with visa, this book’s for you: You’re an advanced high school student or college student trying to puzzle out anatomy and physiology for the first time sildigra 50 mg line. You’re a student at any level who’s returning to the topic after some time away, and you need some refreshing. You’re facing an anatomy and physiology exam and want a good study tool to ensure that you have a firm grasp of the topic. Because this is a workbook, we had to limit our exposition of each and every topic so that we could include lots of practice questions to keep you guessing. How This Book Is Organized Anatomy and physiology are very far-reaching topics, so it only makes sense that this workbook is divided into parts, each of which is divided into a number of chapters. The following sections preview the part topics to give you an idea of what you can find where. Part I: Building Blocks of the Body We begin at the very beginning — chemistry — because it’s a very good place to start. Stop moaning and groaning — chemistry really isn’t as difficult as it’s been made out to be. It’s an integral part of understanding what the body’s cells are doing and how they’re doing it. We cover the basics from the atom on up and introduce the processes that keep the whole package operating smoothly. Cells are living things, just like the bodies of which they are a part, and they have the same cycles as all living things do: They grow, mature, reproduce, and die. By layering thousands upon thousands of similar cells on top of one another, tissues with unique structures and functions are formed. This part covers the primary types of tissues and where you’ll find them in the body. In this part, we breathe life into the respiratory system with a close look at the lungs and everything attached to them, we feed your hunger for knowledge about how nutrients fuel the anatomical package, and we get to the heart of the well-oiled human machine to show how the central pump is the hardest-working muscle in the entire body. None of that matters without a strong defense system, so we touch on the lymphatic system. And don’t forget: All that metabolizing is bound to lead to some waste and by-products; we package up the trash and show you how the body takes it to the dumpster. But we do take a close look at perpetuating humanity through reproductive successes. This part takes the male and female halves of the equation one at a time, delving into the parts of the male and female reproductive systems as well as the functions of those parts. We already have gotten things moving before this part, but now it’s time to study how nerves and hormones keep things hopping. In this part, we lay out the basic building blocks of the nervous system, help you wire it all together, and then show you how the body sends messages flying along a solid spine of brainy material.