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By: Keith A. Rodvold, PharmD, FCCP, FIDSA Professor of Pharmacy Practice and Medicine, Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
Endocardial mapping in humans in sinus rhythm with normal left ventricles: activation patterns and characteristics of electrograms order dapoxetine 30mg with amex drugs for erectile dysfunction. We defined electrogram duration (in msec) as the time from the earliest electrical activity to the onset of the decay artifact as measured in the fixed-gain bipolar electrogram dapoxetine 30 mg low cost erectile dysfunction doctors in alexandria va. We combined the amplitude and duration measurements to give an amplitude/duration ratio to allow equal emphasis to be placed on each of these values dapoxetine 60 mg for sale icd 9 code of erectile dysfunction. We defined normal electrogram amplitude and duration as those within 95% confidence limits for all electrograms for those measurements buy cheap silagra 100mg on-line. We defined electrograms as basal (sites 4 purchase nizagara on line, 6, 8, 10, and 12) or nonbasal (sites 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11). In early versions it was possible to create off-line late potential and electrogram duration maps. Integration with laboratory systems is possible, and has already been accomplished in the Prucka system. The Penn group55,56 has suggested that unipolar recordings may be useful in detecting subepicardial or intramural disease. Filtered bipolar recordings are a reflection of rapid conduction, while unfiltered (0. Any time catheters with different sized electrodes are used, new normal values need to be established. It is important to recognize the fact that our initial studies used both amplitude and duration to define electrograms. This requires a fixed gain at which the electrograms are recorded, something newer technology currently does not have available. Description of Electrograms In our initial studies we obtained 156 electrograms (both variable and fixed gain) in 10 patients for quantitative analysis of characteristics of amplitude and duration. The use of mean values for multiple electrograms recorded from the same defined site left 112 electrograms for analysis. We obtained 215 electrograms (variable gain only) in 15 patients for analysis of left ventricular endocardial activation time. When only 1 electrogram per site was used, 169 electrograms were analyzed for activation time. We found no significant difference in activation times or electrographic characteristics when analyzing the total number of electrograms or the per-site mean average of electrograms. Descriptive Characteristics Electrograms from normal left ventricles had rapid deflections and distinct components. Mean electrogram duration was 54 ± 13 msec; 95% of the electrograms were of 70 msec or less duration. Quantitative descriptions of all electrograms recorded are listed in Tables 2-2 and 2-3 Basal electrograms tended to be of lower amplitude (6.
A second flat tendon develops into the bicipital aponeurosis (lacertus fibrosus) and radiates into the antebrachial fascia generic dapoxetine 30 mg online erectile dysfunction home remedies. It originates from the ole- cranon of the ulna purchase dapoxetine 90mg on line erectile dysfunction 33 years old, the lateral medial epicondyle of the humerus buy dapoxetine on line amex impotence organic, the radial collateral ligament and the anular ligament of the radius discount viagra extra dosage 130mg otc. The supinator muscle inserts at the radius between the radial tuberosity and the inser- tion of the pronator teres muscle buy generic prednisone 20mg on line. As an outward rotat- ing muscle, the supinator muscle is much stronger and more important than the biceps brachii muscle, since the supinator is able to work in all positions of the arm at the same strength. When the elbow is flexed at a 90° angle, the supinators Note are much stronger than the pronators. For this reason, it is much easier to perform actions such as turning a The pronator quadratus muscle is the more important screwdriver if the elbow is flexed. The brachioradialis pronator, since it is involved in all inward rotations, while muscle is not involved in pronation or supination. It only the pronator teres muscle becomes active only during returns the forearm to mid-position. As a one-headed muscle located on ited extent, the flexor carpi radialis muscle, for example, the surface, it originates from the lateral supra-epicondy- is involved in pronation. The two heads to be one of the decelerators of radial deviation of generally unite at the level of the deltoid tuberosity. Brachioradialis Flexor Abductor carpi ulnaris pollicis longus Flexor digitorum O superficialis, tendons of insertion Flexor pollicis longus, tendon of insertion Flexor digitorum profundus, tendons of insertion R Fig. The wrist joint is thus composed of the (bending the back of the hand toward the forearm) and radiocarpal joint, the midcarpal joint and the carpometa- flexion (bending the palm toward the forearm). Hand movements the hand toward the thumb) and ulnar deviation (mov- take place as follows256: ing the hand toward the little finger). This circling movement of wrist joint is not involved in these movements and is the wrist can be supported by pronation and supination more or less carried along. Pure rotation movements are only pas- movements in the plane of the hand and the marginal sively possible. Morphologically, however, it consists of two sepa- Trapezoid rate joints: the proximal and the distal wrist joints. These two joints have two degrees of freedom and are Hamate TrapeziumTrapezium composed of eight carpal bones (seven “regular” bones and one sesamoid bone; ▶Fig. The proximal row Pisiform Capitate contains the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform, while the distal row contains the trapezium, trapezoid, Triquetrum Scaphoid capitate, and hamate.
Although intra-atrial conduction delay both in sinus rhythm and in response to atrial extrastimuli was similar in patients who were successfully treated and in those who failed therapy with this drug buy discount dapoxetine 90 mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment cialis, the effect on refractoriness differed purchase dapoxetine 30mg visa erectile dysfunction code red 7. Those patients in whom amiodarone remained an effective agent for preventing recurrences of atrial flutter demonstrated a marked increase in atrial refractoriness (mean 40 msec) purchase 60mg dapoxetine otc erectile dysfunction from adderall, while in those who had recurrences purchase amoxil with paypal, amiodarone failed to increase refractoriness by more than 10 msec purchase line provera. For all the antiarrhythmic agents we have studied, prolongation of refractoriness was a property necessary to prevent induction of atrial flutter, while impairment of conduction was the most important factor in determining the flutter cycle length. In addition, termination of flutter by antiarrhythmic agents usually results in block in the isthmus. Since termination is most frequently achieved by drugs that slow conduction and maintain a persistent fully excitable gap, the effect on termination must be due to altered excitability and/or coupling. The relative roles of conduction and refractoriness on initiation and or maintenance of the arrhythmia may be 40 related to the concept that a critical wavelength is necessary for initiation of the tachycardia. In any model of reentry, the wavelength of the circulating impulse, which is defined by the product of conduction velocity and refractoriness, is critical for initiation and perhaps maintenance of reentrant excitation. An increase in the wavelength would necessarily require a larger area of block around which the impulse must circulate to initiate reentry. Thus, drugs that primarily prolong refractoriness without significantly affecting conduction (e. Antiarrhythmic agents rarely increase conduction velocity so that prolongation of refractoriness may be the mechanism by which wavelength is increased by these agents. As in the case of amiodarone, if refractoriness was not increased (particularly if conduction is slowed), recurrences of flutter are seen with the cycle length prolonged by the effect of the drug on conduction velocity. Although the concept of a critical wavelength seems attractive as far as initiation is concerned, because of the need for a greater zone of unidirectional block, the application of this concept to termination of a sustained episode is not tenable. This is not surprising since, as discussed above, atrial flutter is associated with a fairly large excitable gap that would not be expected to be closed by the amount of prolongation of the wavelength. In addition, agents that shorten atrial refractoriness such as vagal stimulation or 86 88 89 90 91 adenosine , , , , have no effect on the cycle length of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter, although they can change it to atrial fibrillation. In my experience, carotid sinus pressure, another vagal maneuver, has no effect on the flutter cycle length. Thus, the response to antiarrhythmic agents is consistent with the concept that the reentrant pathway in isthmus-dependent flutter is primarily anatomically determined, although the initiation of that rhythm can be altered by changes in conduction and/or refractoriness in critical parts of the circuit. Adenosine has no effect on macroreentrant atrial tachycardias based on anatomic structures, but may accelerate functional circuits by shortening atrial refractoriness. That occurred coincident with a change in the flutter-wave duration from 150 to 270 msec (vertical solid lines). The atrial effective refractory period determined at a cycle length of 400 msec was 325 after the administration of quinidine (plasma level was 4. Despite a normal H-V interval (45 msec) during sinus rhythm (the complex on the left), infra-His block is present during atrial flutter.
The electrical anatomic mapping systems (Biosense dapoxetine 30mg on line erectile dysfunction pump price, Navix and Rhythmia) allow one to define the size of the isthmus by identifying in 3D space all the sites from which concealed entrainment can be demonstrated order genuine dapoxetine on line erectile dysfunction cures over the counter. The site at which termination occurs can be identified by assessing the effect on local electrograms discount 60mg dapoxetine visa impotence urban dictionary. Large isthmuses often require two to three lesions at adjacent sites usually within 1 cm buy super cialis on line amex. Both the distal and second poles demonstrated this mid-diastolic potential cialis professional 40mg with visa, which was slightly earlier in the distal tip. The sinus complexes that were recorded in the same electrograms demonstrated a late potential. Substrate Mapping In the presence of unstable monomorphic and/or polymorphic ventricular tachycardias, detailed activation mapping and entrainment mapping are not possible. Multisite data acquisition systems as described above may provide useful information in such cases as to the earliest site of activation. However, these methodologies do not necessarily allow one to do a discrete ablative procedure. As such, ablation in these arrhythmias must be aimed at producing larger lesions to disrupt the potential circuit. These are indirect methods based on identification of the arrhythmogenic substrate in patients with structural heart P. As such, abnormal electrograms were used for guiding surgical procedures in which these abnormal electrograms were encircled or removed in order to cure ventricular tachycardia. Substrate ablation was able to prevent induction and clinical recurrence of tachycardias, many of which were relatively stable. We have also used the electroanatomic mapping approach to identify the substrate in coronary disease and have shown that the site of successful ablation in the central, common pathway is located in infarcted tissue with late activation, low voltage, and often associated with late potentials (Fig. A: Ventricular pacing is being carried out at a presumed site in the central common pathway. The patient has been free of ventricular tachycardia for over 10 years, off medications. The concept of using voltage mapping to understand the morphology of ventricular scar and to plan ablation strategies is powerful. However, recent investigation suggests that there are significant limitations to this strategy which may explain, in part, the limited success rate of this technique. Although the voltage gradient in transmural infarction is very steep, repeated measures at the border of the infarct often are disparate, presumably related to the inherent inaccuracy of mapping with large tip catheters and differences in orientation; these errors would be expected to be magnified noninfarct related scar, in which the gradient is not always as steep. At times, isolated late potentials (a certain signal of slow conduction) can be sufficiently high enough in amplitude to not “qualify” as scar in electroanatomic mapping. These limitations may be further magnified when unipolar voltage mapping techniques (see below) are employed.