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Physicists are concerned about the potentially harmful outcomes of their experiments with nuclear materials discount extra super avana 260mg without prescription erectile dysfunction for young men. Biologists worry about the potential outcomes of creating genetically engineered human babies order extra super avana with amex erectile dysfunction doctors in orlando. Medical researchers agonize over the ethics of withholding potentially beneficial drugs from control groups in clinical trials order extra super avana without a prescription impotence 40 years. For instance buy genuine nizagara on-line, researchers may require introductory psychology students to participate in research projects and then deceive these students order kamagra super master card, at least temporarily 100mg zenegra, about the nature of the research. Psychologists may induce stress, anxiety, or negative moods in their participants, expose them to weak electrical shocks, or convince them to behave in ways that violate their moral standards. And researchers may sometimes use animals in their research, potentially harming them in the process. Decisions about whether research is ethical are made using established ethical codes developed by scientific organizations, such as the American Psychological Association, and federal governments. In the United States, the Department of Health and Human Services provides the guidelines for ethical standards in research. Other procedures, such as the use of animals in research testing the effectiveness of drugs, are more controversial. Scientific research has provided information that has improved the lives of many people. Therefore, it is unreasonable to argue that because scientific research has costs, no research should be conducted. This argument fails to consider the fact that there are significant costs to not doing research and that these costs may be greater than the potential costs of conducting the [4] research (Rosenthal, 1994). In each case, before beginning to conduct the research, scientists have attempted to determine the potential risks and benefits of the research and have come to the conclusion that the potential benefits of conducting the research outweigh the potential costs to the research participants. Characteristics of an Ethical Research Project Using Human Participants  Trust and positive rapport are created between the researcher and the participant. The most direct ethical concern of the scientist is to prevent harm to the research participants. One example is the well-known research of Stanley Milgram [6] (1974) investigating obedience to authority. In these studies, participants were induced by an experimenter to administer electric shocks to another person so that Milgram could study the extent to which they would obey the demands of an authority figure. Most participants evidenced high levels of stress resulting from the psychological conflict they experienced between engaging in aggressive and dangerous behavior and following the instructions of the experimenter. Studies such as those by Milgram are no longer conducted because the scientific community is now much more sensitized to the potential of such procedures to create emotional discomfort or harm.

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The benefits of treatment Although failed obesity treatment may be related to negative mood order line extra super avana erectile dysfunction 42, actual weight loss has been found to be associated with positive changes such as elation discount extra super avana line impotence related to diabetes, self-confidence and increased feelings of well-being (Stunkard 1984) purchase extra super avana 260mg online erectile dysfunction treatment los angeles. This suggests that whereas failed dieting attempts are detrimental buy discount extra super levitra, successful treatment may bring with it psychological rewards buy cheap malegra dxt on line. They compared a group of severely obese subjects who received surgery with a comparison group who received a behavioural diet programme generic 50mg sildigra overnight delivery. The results indicated that the surgery group showed higher rates of both weight loss and weight maintenance. Thus, permanent weight loss through surgery brought both physical and psychological benefits. Weight loss, therefore, can be bene- ficial in the obese, but only if treatment is successful and the results are permanent. Therefore, dieting may be rejected as a treatment but weight loss may still be seen as beneficial. An argument for treating severe obesity can be made, but only if a positive outcome can be guaranteed, as failed treatment may be more detrimental than no treatment attempts at all. The treatment alternatives The problems with dieting The implications of restraint theory suggest that the obese should avoid restrained eating. Dieting offers a small chance of weight loss and a high chance of both negative physical and psychological consequences. Taking dieting out of the treatment equation leaves us primarily with drug treatment and surgery. For example, both fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were recently withdrawn from the market because of their association with heart disease even though they were both quite effective at bringing about weight loss. There are currently two groups of anti- obesity drugs available which are offered in conjunction with dietary and exercise pro- grammes. The first group act on the gastrointestinal system and the more successful of these reduce fat absorption. Orlistat is one of these and has been shown to cause sub- stantial weight loss in obese subjects (James et al. It can be, however, accompanied by a range of unpleasant side effects includ- ing liquid stools, an urgency to go to the toilet and anal leakage which are particularly apparent following a high fat meal. Although Orlistat is designed to work by reducing fat absorption it probably also has a deterrent effect as eating fat causes unpleasant consequences. The second group of drugs work on the central nervous system and suppress appetite. The most commonly used of these are phentermine which acts on the catecholamine pathway and sibutramine which acts on the noradronergic and seroton- ergic pathways. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of these drugs although they can also be accompanied by side effects such as nausea, dry mouth and constipation (Lean 1997).

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Howard Gruber order extra super avana 260 mg amex erectile dysfunction treatment lloyds pharmacy, who If a person was undergoing covert sensitization to stop worked to understand creativity by studying the lives of using alcohol order extra super avana 260 mg with amex erectile dysfunction icd 0, for instance purchase extra super avana 260mg amex impotence natural cures, a typical therapy session famous innovators cheap aurogra 100mg otc, found broad common characteristics: would involve the therapist instructing the client to 1) they engaged in a variety of activities within their cho- imagine himself drinking and becoming very nauseous buy cialis soft visa. By imagining this disgusting las’s 1962 study of well-known scientists and other inno- scene over and over again purchase viagra professional 100 mg online, the client starts associating al- vators yielded a widely used four-stage breakdown of the cohol with vomit, and drinking becomes much less ap- creative process. Finally, the therapist would instruct the client to mulating a problem, studying previous work on it, and imagine accepting a drink, becoming nauseous again, thinking intensely about it. In the imagined is no visible progress on the problem; it may be periodi- scene, the nausea (which is an unpleasant stimulus for cally “mulled over,” but it is largely left dormant, allow- almost everyone) goes away as a consequence of the ing subconscious ideas about it to emerge. In the final, The major advantage covert sensitization has over or verification, stage, the idea is tested and evaluated. Guilford first distinguished the tions asked on such tests include “Imagine all of the thought processes of creative people from those of other things that might possibly happen if all national and people in terms of convergent and divergent thinking. Researchers have found little correlation between In contrast, divergent thinking—the kind most closely as- the scores of fifth and tenth graders on divergent think- sociated with creativity and originality—involves the abil- ing tests and their actual achievements in high school in ity to envision multiple ways to solve a problem. Originality is capacity to consider many alternatives at the same time; not the only criterion of a successful solution to a prob- and originality refers to the difference between a person’s lem: it must also be appropriate for its purpose, and con- ideas and those of most other people. In addition, studies of people known for their been designed to assess creativity. Other traits known to be shared by highly cre- ative people include self-confidence, nonconformity, am- Creativity tests bition, and perseverance. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Tests designed to measure creativity in children or once remarked that for every hundred thoughts he had, adults. In a 1986 study, a group of researchers identified Creativity tests, mostly devised during the past 30 three essential criteria for creative achievement: expertise years, are aimed at assessing the qualities and abilities in a specific field, which must be learned; creative skills, that constitute creativity. These tests evaluate mental including divergent thinking; and the motivation to en- abilities in ways that are different from—and even dia- gage in creative activity for its own sake regardless of ex- metrically opposed to—conventional intelligence tests. Studies not above average, but beyond a score of 120 there is lit- with identical twins raised separately show that environ- tle correlation between performance on intelligence and mental influences play at least as great a role in the de- creativity tests. Creative skills of Most creativity tests in use today are based at least identical twins reared apart vary more than their intellec- partially on the theory of creativity evolved by J. Guilford posited that the ability to en- ideas in both children and adults leads to increased cre- vision multiple solutions to a problem lay at the core of ativity. He called this process divergent thinking and by four-year-olds increased dramatically when novel de- its opposite—the tendency to narrow all options to a sin- signs were praised by adults; when this positive rein- gle solution—convergent thinking. Guilford identified forcement was stopped, the children reverted to produc- three components of divergent thinking: fluency (the ing unimaginative patterns. Other studies have used sim- ability to quickly find multiple solutions to a problem); ilar techniques to boost creativity scores of fifth graders, flexibility (being able to simultaneously consider a vari- improve the originality of stories written by sixth ety of alternatives); and originality (referring to ideas graders, and increased the ability of college students to that differ from those of other people). One interesting finding signed to assess an individual’s aptitude for divergent in studies such as these is that positively reinforcing one thinking included the Torrance (1962) and Meeker kind of creative activity encourages original thinking in (1969) tests.

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