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By: David Robertson MD Elton Yates Professor of Medicine, Pharmacology and Neurology, vanderbilt University; Director, Clinical & Translational Research Center, vanderbilt institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Nashville
On clinical subclavian artery and third part of the axillary arteryathe scapular examination the latter injury results in winging of the scapula order line proscar prostate 94. The axilla 77 34 The shoulder (gleno-humeral) joint Coracoclavicular Coraco-acromial ligament ligament Subacromial bursa Long head Acromion of biceps Supraspinatus Subscapularis Subscapular Infraspinatus bursa Glenoid fossa Teres minor Capsular ligament Long head of triceps Fig cheap 5 mg proscar fast delivery mens health 2014. Nerve supply: from the axillary (C5 buy proscar 5 mg online prostate cancer 68,6) and suprascapular nerves Type: the shoulder is a synovial ‘ball and socket’ joint which permits (C5 quality toradol 10 mg,6) generic 400mg levitra plus with mastercard. It is formed by the articulation of the humeral head with the shallow glenoid fossa of the scapula (see p. The Shoulder movements glenoid is slightly deepened by a ﬁbrocartilaginous rimathe glenoid The shoulder is a ‘ball and socket’ joint allowing a wide range of move- labrum. Much of this range is attributed to the articulation of the shallow The capsule: of the shoulder joint is lax permitting a wide range of glenoid with a rounded humeral head. The capsule is signiﬁcantly strengthened Flexion (0–90°): pectoralis major, coracobrachialis and deltoid by slips from the surrounding rotator cuff muscle tendons. Stability: is afforded by the rotator cuff and the ligaments around the Extension (0–45°): teres major, latissimus dorsi and deltoid (poster- shoulder joint. The main External (lateral) rotators (0–55°): infraspinatus, teres minor and stability of the shoulder is afforded by the rotator cuff. The eously the scapula is rotated so that the glenoid faces upwards; this subscapular bursa separates the shoulder capsule from the tendon of action is produced by the lower ﬁbres of serratus anterior which are subscapularis which passes directly anterior to it. The subscapular inserted into the inferior angle of the scapula and by the trapezius which bursa communicates with the shoulder joint. The subacromial bursa pulls the lateral end of the spine of the scapula upwards and the medial separates the shoulder capsule from the coracoacromial ligament end downwards. It surrounds the intracapsular tendon of biceps and extends dislocation as the head usually comes to lie anteriorly in the subcora- slightly beyond the transverse humeral ligament as a sheath. Sometimes the force of the injury is sufﬁcient to tear the the subscapular bursa anteriorly by protruding through the anterior wall glenoid labrum anteriorly thereby facilitating recurrence. The shoulder (gleno-humeral) joint 79 35 The arm Supraspinatus Suprascapular nerve Deltoid Pectoralis Infraspinatus major Teres minor Axillary nerve Biceps Brachial artery retracted on brachialis Deltoid (pulled back) Median nerve Brachioradialis Lateral head of triceps Tendon of biceps Long head Radial nerve Bicipital of triceps Lateral aponeurosis cutaneous nerve of Medial head of forearm triceps Fig. The thick black lines represent the deep fascia and the intermuscular septa 80 Upper limb When viewed in cross-section the arm consists of skin and subcutan- The musculocutaneous nerve and branches (remember that, after pro- eous tissue in which the superﬁcial veins and sensory nerves course. Medial and lateral intermuscular septa the deep fascia in the mid-arm to become the lateral cutaneous nerve of arise from the supracondylar lines of the humerus and extend to the the forearm): see p. The ulnar nerve (in the upper arm onlyaas it pierces the medial inter- muscular septum to pass into the posterior compartment in the mid- arm): see p. The arm 81 36 The elbow joint and cubital fossa Attachment of capsular ligament Radial fossa Coronoid fossa Capitulum Lax part of capsule Trochlea Annular ligament Head of radius Tendon of biceps Coronoid process of ulna Radius Interosseous membrane Radial tuberosity Ulna Fig.
The sacral outﬂow: 3 They may pass straight through their own ganglion generic 5mg proscar with amex man health center, maintaining From the sacral nerves S2 proscar 5mg on-line man health review best male nhan men products, 3 and 4 generic 5 mg proscar amex prostate wellness, ﬁbres join the inferior hypogastric their preganglionic status until they synapse in one of the outlying plexuses by means of the pelvic splanchnic nerves proven 1000 mg cipro. One exceptional group of supply the pelvic viscera purchase super p-force 160 mg online, synapsing in minute ganglia in the walls of ﬁbres even pass through the coeliac ganglion and do not synapse the viscera themselves. Region Origin of connector ﬁbres Site of synapse Sympathetic Head and neck T1–T5 Cervical ganglia Upper limb T2–T6 Inferior cervical and 1st thoracic ganglia Lower limb T10–L2 Lumbar and sacral ganglia Heart T1–T5 Cervical and upper thoracic ganglia Lungs T2–T4 Upper thoracic ganglia Abdominal and pelvic T6–L2 Coeliac and subsidiary ganglia viscera Parasympathetic Head and neck Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10 Various parasympathetic macroscopic ganglia Heart Cranial nerve 10 Ganglia in vicinity of heart Lungs Cranial nerve 10 Ganglia in hila of lungs Abdominal and pelvic Cranial nerve 10 Microscopic ganglia in walls of viscera viscera (down to transverse colon) S2, 3, 4 Microscopic ganglia in walls of viscera The autonomic nervous system 121 54 The skull I Coronal suture Parietal Squamous Frontal temporal Sphenoid, greater wing Ethmoid Lambda Lacrimal Metopic suture (uncommon) Occipital Supraorbital foramen Nasal Position of frontal air sinus Zygomatic Maxilla Frontal External Ethmoid auditory meatus Lacrimal Orbital plate External occipital of frontal Styloid Optic canal Sphenoid, protuberance process Superior lesser wing Fig. The bones are the frontal, parietal, occipital, squamous temporal and the greater wing of the sphenoid. The bones are The vault of the skull separated by sutures which hold the bones ﬁrmly together in the mature The vault of the skull comprises a number of ﬂat bones, each of skull (Figs 54. Occasionally the frontal bone may be separated which consists of two layers of compact bone separated by a layer of into two halves by a midline metopic suture. The anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae are coloured green, red and blue respectively There are a number of emissary foramina which transmit emissary Foramen rotundum (Maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve) veins. These establish a communication between the intra- and extra- Foramen ovale (Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve) cranial veins. Foramen spinosum (Middle meningeal artery) On an X-ray of the skull there are markings which may be mistaken Foramen lacerum (Internal carotid artery through upper opening for a fracture. Other features: The superior orbital ﬁssure is between the greater and lesser wings The interior of the base of the skull of the sphenoid. The interior of the base of the skull comprises the anterior, middle and In the midline is the body of the sphenoid with the sella turcica on posterior cranial fossae (Fig. The foramen lacerum is the gap between the apex of the petrous The anterior cranial fossa temporal and the body of the sphenoid. Bones: The boundary between the middle and posterior cranial fossae is Orbital plate of the frontal bone the sharp upper border of the petrous temporal bone. Lesser wing of the sphenoid Cribriform plate of the ethmoid The posterior cranial fossa Foramina: Bones: In the cribriform plate (Olfactory nerves) Petrous temporal (posterior surface) Optic canal (Optic nerve and ophthalmic artery) Occipital Other features: Foramina: The orbital plate of the frontal forms the roof of the orbit. Foramen magnum (lower part of medulla, vertebral arteries, spinal Lateral to the optic canals are the anterior clinoid processes. Superior orbital ﬁssure (Frontal, lacrimal and nasociliary branches The inner surface of the occipital is marked by deep grooves for the of trigeminal nerve; oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves; transverse and sigmoid venous sinuses. The remainder consists of the bones that were seen in the Foramen ovale (already described) middle and posterior cranial fossae but many of the foramina seen on Other features: the exterior are not visible inside the cranium. The area between and below the nuchal lines is for the attachment Bones: of the extensor muscles of the neck. Temporal (Squamous, petrous and tympanic parts and the styloid The occipital condyles, for articulation with the atlas, lie on either process) side of the foramen magnum.
The pharmacokinetic parameters computed by the program are a volume of distribu- tion of 34 L proscar 5 mg with visa prostate health vitamins, a Vmax equal to 354 mg/d generic 5mg proscar free shipping prostate and bladder, and a Km equal to 5 order proscar 5 mg on line androgen hormone regulation. The one-compartment model Michaelis-Menten equations used by the program to compute doses indicates that a dose of 304 mg/d of phenytoin will produce a total steady- state concentration of 19 trusted 130mg viagra extra dosage. Extended phenytoin sodium capsules would be prescribed as 330 mg/d (three 100 mg capsules + one 30 mg capsule) purchase 80 mg top avana with mastercard. A steady-state trough total phenytoin serum concentration should be measured after steady state is attained in 7–14 days. Phenytoin serum concentrations should also be measured if the patient experiences an exacerbation of their epilepsy, or if the patient develops potential signs or symptoms of phenytoin toxicity. The patient was prescribed 300 mg/d of extended phenytoin sodium capsules for 1 month, and the steady-state phenytoin total concentration equals 8. Suggest a new phenytoin dosage regi- men increase designed to achieve a steady-state phenytoin concentration within the upper end of the therapeutic range. Enter patient’s demographic, drug dosing, and serum concentration/time data into the computer program. The pharmacokinetic parameters computed by the program are a volume of distribu- tion of 43 L, a Vmax equal to 586 mg/d, and a Km equal to 13. The one-compartment model Michaelis-Menten equations used by the program to compute doses indicates that a dose of 396 mg/d of phenytoin will produce a total steady- state concentration of 20. Extended phenytoin sodium capsules would be prescribed as 430 mg/d (four 100 mg capsules + one 30 mg capsule). A steady-state trough total phenytoin serum concentration should be measured after steady state is attained in 7–14 days. Phenytoin serum concentrations should also be measured if the patient experiences an exacerbation of their epilepsy, or if the patient develops potential signs or symptoms of phenytoin toxicity. Some dosing schemes link together logically when considered according to their basic approaches or philosophies. In this setting, it would not be acceptable to simply increase the maintenance dose and wait for therapeutic steady-state serum concentrations to be established in the patient. If the volume of distribution for phenytoin is known for the patient, it can be used in the calcula- tion. For obese individuals 30% or more above their ideal body weight, the volume of distribution can be estimated using the following equation: V = 0. Concurrent with the administration of the booster dose, the maintenance dose of phenytoin is usually increased. Clinicians need to recognize that the administration of a booster dose does not alter the time required to achieve steady-state conditions when a new phenytoin dosage rate is prescribed. However, usually the difference between the postbooster dose phenytoin concentration and the ultimate steady-state concentration has been reduced by giving the extra dose of drug. After receiving an initial loading dose of phenytoin sodium (1000 mg) and a maintenance dose of 300 mg/d of phenytoin sodium for 5 days, his phenytoin concen- tration is measured at 5.
Rather purchase proscar 5mg amex mens health positions, clinicians are aware that when phenytoin dosage forms are changed purchase 5mg proscar otc prostatic hyperplasia, phenytoin content may change and anticipate that the drug concentration may increase or decrease because of this order proscar 5mg with mastercard prostate 4k test. Because of this buy tadacip on line, most individuals recheck phenytoin serum concentrations after a dosage form change is instituted discount 260mg extra super avana amex. The oral bioavailability of phenytoin is very good for capsule, tablet, and suspension dosage forms and approximates 100%. Since larger oral doses also produce a higher incidence of gastrointestinal side effects (primarily nausea and vomiting due to local irritation), it is prudent to break maintenance doses larger than 800 mg/d into multiple doses. The solution to this problem is to stop the feedings, when possible, for 1–2 hours before and after pheny- toin administration, and increase the oral phenytoin dose. Of course, intravenous or intramuscular phenytoin or fos- phenytoin doses could also be substituted while nasogastric feedings were being adminis- tered. Although poorly documented, phenytoin oral malabsorption may also occur in patients with severe diarrhea, malabsorption syndromes, or gastric resection. The typical recommended loading dose for phenytoin is 15–20 mg/kg resulting in 1000 mg for most adult patients. Usual initial maintenance doses are 5–10 mg/kg/d for children (6 months–16 years old) and 4–6 mg/kg/d for adults. Because of an increased incidence of adverse effects in older patients (>65 years old), many clinicians prescribe a maximum of 200 mg/d as an initial dose for these individuals. However, the same changes occur for average total and unbound steady-state concentra- tions when the drug is given on a continuous dosage schedule (every 8 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and so on) or orally. On the x-axis, an arrow indicates that phenytoin plasma protein binding decreases and unbound fraction increases in the patient; an assumption made for this illustration is that any changes in the parameters are instantaneous. An increase in the parameter is denoted as an uptick in the line while a decrease in the parameter is shown as a downtick in the line. For a drug with a low hepatic extraction ratio, plasma protein binding displacement drug interactions cause major pharmacokinetic alterations but are not clinically signiﬁ- cant because the pharmacologic effect of the drug does not change (Figure 10-2A). Since half-life depends on clearance and volume of distribution, it is likely that because both increase, half-life will not substantially change [t1/2 = (0. However, it is possible that if either clearance or volume of distribution changes disproportionately, half-life will change. But, the unbound steady-state concentration will remain unaltered because the free fraction of drug in the blood is higher than it was before the increase in unbound fraction occurred (Css,u =↑fB↓Css). The pharmacologic effect of the drug does not change because the free concentration of drug in the blood is unchanged. This can be an unexpected outcome for the decrease in plasma protein bind- ing, especially because the total steady-state concentration of the drug decreased. Clini- cians need to be on the outlook for situations like this because the total drug concentration (bound + unbound) can be misleading and cause an unwarranted increase in drug dosage. Unbound drug concentrations should be used to convince clinicians that a drug dosage increase is not needed even though total concentrations decline as a result of this interaction.
Whereas such lesions can slowly occlude coronary vessels order proscar 5mg visa prostate keep healthy, clinical symptoms are more frequently precipitated by rupture of unstable atheromatous plaques purchase proscar now prostate 9 complex reviews, leading to activation of platelets and formation of occlusive thrombi purchase proscar 5mg with visa man healthxnet. Although treatment of hyperlipidemia can cause slow physical regression of plaques buy clomid 100 mg on line, the well-documented reduction in acute coronary events that follows vigorous lipid-lowering treatment is attributable chiefly to mitigation of the inflammatory activity of macrophages and is evident within 2–3 months after starting therapy buy sildalis 120 mg lowest price. They participate in retrieval of cholesterol from the artery wall and inhibit the oxidation of atherogenic lipoproteins. Normal coronary arteries can dilate in response to ischemia, increasing delivery of oxygen to the myocardium. Reducing levels of atherogenic lipoproteins and inhibiting their oxidation restores endothelial function. Because atherogenesis is multifactorial, therapy should be directed toward all modifiable risk factors. Quantitative angiographic trials have demonstrated net regression of plaques during aggressive lipid- lowering therapy. Primary and secondary prevention trials have shown significant reduction in mortality from new coronary events and in all-cause mortality. Chylomicrons Chylomicrons are formed in the intestine and carry triglycerides of dietary origin, unesterified cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. Unlike other cells, hepatocytes can eliminate cholesterol by secretion in bile and by conversion to bile acids. The (a) protein is highly homologous with plasminogen but is not activated by tissue plasminogen activator. Lp(a) can be found in atherosclerotic plaques and may also contribute to coronary disease by inhibiting thrombolysis. Much of the cholesteryl ester thus transferred is ultimately delivered to the liver by endocytosis of the acceptor lipoproteins. Diagnosis of a primary disorder usually requires further clinical and genetic data as well as ruling out secondary hyperlipidemias (Table 35–3). Drugs mentioned for use in these conditions are described in the following section on basic and clinical pharmacology. Hypertriglyceridemic patients with coronary disease or risk equivalents should be treated aggressively. Management of these patients frequently requires, in addition to a fibrate, the use of metformin, another agent, or both (see Chapter 41). The severity of hypertriglyceridemia of any cause is increased in the presence of the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Primary Chylomicronemia Chylomicrons are not present in the serum of normal individuals who have fasted 10 hours. Patients may have eruptive xanthomas, hepatosplenomegaly, hypersplenism, and lipid-laden foam cells in bone marrow, liver, and spleen. A presumptive diagnosis is made by demonstrating a pronounced decrease in triglycerides a few days after reduction of daily fat intake below 15 g.