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The blood pressure was recorded by a mercury monometer connected to the kymograph cheap 40 mg nexium mastercard gastritis symptoms duration. Intravenous injection of the extracts in the doses of 10 40 mg nexium with amex gastritis b12, 20 and 40mg/kg body weight lowered the blood pressure significantly (p<0 buy amantadine 100 mg on-line. The average percent fall of mean arterial blood pressure with 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg of the aqueous extract were 17. This finding is the first report on hypotensive activity of Gisekia pharnaceoides Linn. Study of inhibitory effects of some traditional medicine formulations on adrenaline- induced hyperglycaemia in animal models. Study of knowledge, perception and practice of patients utilizing traditional medical care at the traditional medical centres in Yangon and Mandalay. Thaw Zin; Thaung Hla; Nwe Nwe Win; Win Kyi; Kyin Thein; Aye Lwin; Soe Moe; Mya Bwin; Aung Naing; Thein Hlaing; Hla Pe. With recognition of traditional medicine as a great potential in contribution to primary health care, the National Health Plan in Myanmar is at present, engaged in developing the most appropriate method for inclusion of traditional medicine in the health care strategies for the attainment, by the people of Myanmar, the goal known as “Health for all by the year 2000”. Thus, the study was conducted on 922 patients attending the traditional medicine health centres in Yangon and Mandalay and their socio-cultural background, strength of the traditional medicine was studied so as to identify the target beneficiaries and to develop methods by which traditional health care can be delivered effectively to the population for which it is intended. May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Aye Than; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Kyi Kyi Myint; San San Myint; Mya Thet Lwin. Myanmar has a rich tradition in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Swertia angustifolia from the border of Kayin and Kayah States of Myanmar was introduced as antidiabetic in Myanmar traditional system for few years, but there was no scientific information about Swertia angustifolia having hypoglycemic activity in Myanmar. The aim of this study was to reveal scientific proof on hypoglycemic properties of reputed plants and its constituents, usually claimed to be effective for diabetes. Thus, the complete crossover experimental study design was tested on adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rabbit model. After one week, aqueous extracts of Swertia angustifolia 3g/kg body weight was administered with 1% methyl cellulose and the blood glucose level were again determined after adrenaline injection. The result showed that blood glucose levels of adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rabbits were 197. The study showed that the aqueous extracts of Swertia angustifolia significantly lowered the blood glucose levels at 1hr (p<0. Flavonoid, steroid, saponin, polyphenol, glycoside, protein and carbohydrate were detected. It was concluded that Swertia angustifolia revealed hypotensive activity and reported as first finding.

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Informa- tion obtained from radiographs will frequently com- 12 plement results from other testing methods buy 40mg nexium free shipping gastritis quick cure, provid- ing for a more thorough evaluation of a disease process 20 mg nexium mastercard gastritis diet 50. Both risk and benefit to the patient should be consid- ered when radiography is used as a screening proce- dure in an apparently normal companion bird buy 20gm cleocin gel visa. Radiographic findings should always be correlated with surgical, endoscopic or necropsy findings. These comparisons will refine a clinician’s ability to detect subtle radiographic changes, and improve diagnostic capabilities and therapeutic results. Detail is improved Technical Considerations by using a small focal spot, the shortest possible exposure time (usually 0. The contact between the radiographic cas- tissue and bone) and ability to arrest motion are the sette and the patient should be even, and the area of primary factors that influence radiographic tech- interest should be as close as possible to the film. Although the skeleton is easy to visualize, specific soft tissue structures within the coelomic There is increasing discussion of the use of mammog- cavity may be difficult to differentiate, especially in raphy machines for imaging avian patients. Interpretation of the radiographs may these machines do produce excellent quality images be complicated by the blending of soft tissue struc- with extremely refined detail, the clinician should be tures caused by the compact viscera, rudimentary aware that imaging requires exposure to high levels mesenteric attachments and minimal fat. Radiographic Technique Multiple factors influence the quality of a radio- graphic image. In radiographing the avian patient, The specific technical factors needed to obtain a high the goal is to produce a properly positioned, detailed quality radiograph will vary with the type of radio- study with a long scale of contrast, minimal motion graphic equipment, film-screen combinations and and the least exposure of the patient and technical various settings used for specific purposes. In general, the image quality nique chart for the various species can be devel- is controlled by: oped. In small Passeriformes, such as canar- ies and finches, reducing the focal-film distance by Attention to quality in all aspects of obtaining a one-fourth (to 30 inches) and decreasing the mAs by radiograph will result in consistent, high quality one-half may improve the radiographic image. De- radiographs with reduced repeat rates, increased ef- creasing the focal-film distance can result in loss of ficiency, less patient stress, reduced radiation expo- detail due to magnification; however, with small pa- sure and economic savings. A quality control program tients, a shorter focal-film distance does not seem to that encompasses all the factors contributing to the compromise the radiographic image. Low-absorp- to define an edge, is compromised by motion, uneven tion cassette fronts may provide comparable detailed film-screen contact and a large focal spot. If hospital person- nel must be present during an expo- sure, they should wear a lead apron, lead gloves, thyroid shield, protective glasses and a film badge. No portion of a person’s body should be in the primary beam, even if covered by lead. With practice, restraining methods can be developed so only the patient is exposed to radiation.

The cells of upper and lower surfaces of lamina were wavy and anomocytic types of stomata were present on the lower surface purchase discount nexium gastritis on x ray. Calcium oxalate crystals were present in mesophyll tissues of lamina and parenchymatous cells of midrib and petiole purchase discount nexium line gastritis diet quizzes. Angular collenchyma and parenchymatous cells were present in mesocap of the fruits cheap lumigan 3 ml. The testa of seeds was composed of brachy sclereids and tegmen was parenchymatous cells. The qualitative analyses showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoid, glycoside, phenolic compound, saponin, starch, terpenoid, steroid, reducing sugar and tannins. Nutritioinal analyses of the powdered root was conducted and found that carbohydrate, protein, vitamin B1, vitamin C, fat and fibre were present. Various solvent extracts and compounds A and B were tested against six microorganisms for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method. It was found that acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts were more effective than compounds A and B. But the isolated compounds were effective than petroleum- ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water extracts. The acute toxicity of aqueous extract and 70% ethanolic extract from roots of Carissa carandas L. It was observed that aqueous and ethanolic were free from acute toxicity or harmful effect during observation period of 14-days even with maximum permissible dose of 24g/kg. In anthelmintic activity, aqueous extracts was found to be more effective than ethanolic extracts. In the former method, ethanolic extract showed the antioxidant activity up to dry matter amount 25µg (Conc. But the latter showed that the ethanolic extract from the roots of this plant was found to be significant as the ascorbic acid. According to the morphological characters present in the vegetative and reproductive parts of the plants, it has been identified by using available literature. The microscopical characters of fresh leaves, culms, roots and the dried powder of the whole plant were examined to ascertain its identification. The bulliform or motor cells and two types of vascular bundles are observed in tranverse section of lamina. The vascular bundles are scattered, except in the center of the culm in tranverse section. The whole plant powder of this plant was tested to determine the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical properties. Tanins and cyanogenic glycosides were found to be absent and carbohydrate, starch, α-amino acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides and reducing sugar were present. Moisture, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin C and vitamin B1 were also investigated and found to be the constituents of the whole plant. Accordingly, two compounds were detected, one was assumed to be vitex and the other saponarin.

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These entiate progranulocytes into their respective granu- are round-to-slightly oval cells that are smaller than locytic cell lines based upon the appearance of the rubriblasts and prorubricytes cheap nexium master card gastritis best diet. The ring forms ration they are the basophilic rubricyte (early poly- are thought to be characteristic of the heterophil cell chromatic erythroblast) discount nexium uk gastritis stomach pain, early polychromatic rubri- line generic 200 mg pyridium fast delivery. Eosinophil progranulocytes lack the dark ma- cyte (late polychromatic erythroblast) and late genta granules and rings and contain only brightly polychromatic rubricyte (orthochromic erythroblast). Baso- The basophilic rubricyte has a high N:C ratio, homo- phil progranulocytes have magenta granules that geneous basophilic cytoplasm and round nucleus appear smaller than those of heterophil progranulo- with distinct chromatin clumping. The nucleus of progranulocytes is typically eccentric in its cellular The early polychromatic rubricyte appears smaller position, has a delicate reticular chromatin pattern than the basophilic rubricyte and is the first stage of and often has indistinct margins. The myelocytes are smaller than the progranulocytes The hemoglobin gives the cytoplasm a gray, slightly and contain the specific granules (secondary gran- eosinophilic appearance. Heterophil myelocytes are smaller with increased density, and the cytoplasm is round cells with light blue cytoplasm containing pri- more abundant when compared to the previous stage mary granules, magenta granules and rings and the of development. The de- a round-to-slightly oval cell with an eosinophilic finitive granules occupy less than 50 percent of the gray-to-weakly eosinophilic cytoplasm (Color 9. Eosinophil myelocytes contain This cell appears to have increased cytoplasmic vol- primary and secondary granules. The nucleus of myelocytes is cyte, except the cytoplasm is a pale blue and the round and has coarsely granular chromatin. Metamyelocytes resemble myelocytes, except the cell Lymphopoiesis nucleus is slightly indented and may have distinct chromatin clumping. Heterophil metamyelocytes Lymphocyte development may be seen occasionally have definitive, rod-shaped granules that occupy when evaluating hematopoietic tissue (Color 9. Three distinctive stages can be identified for lympho- The primary granules and magenta spheres and cyte development: lymphoblasts, prolymphocytes rings may be present, but fewer in number than the and mature lymphocytes. The nucleus phil and basophil series also occupy greater than 50 has smooth chromatin, in comparison to the mature percent of the cytoplasmic volume in their respective cell, and contains distinct nucleoli. Prolymphocytes resemble lymphoblasts but are The granulocytic cell series will occasionally reveal a slightly smaller, lack nucleoli and have a less baso- band cell stage similar to that described in mammal- philic cytoplasm. However, the cell nucleus is often oblasts and prolymphocytes represent less than ten hidden by the cytoplasmic granules (especially in percent of the lymphoid cells. Thus, the majority of heterophils), making it difficult to differentiate the the cells should be mature lymphocytes with the band cell from mature cells. Mature avian basophil heavy nuclear chromatin clumping, high N:C ratio nuclei do not segment.

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Gross lesions in the (pro)ventriculus may be presence or absence of active bleeding from the ulcer- subtle buy nexium 20mg low cost gastritis causes and symptoms, and histologic examination is needed to differ- ated tumor order nexium 40 mg with amex gastritis diet 9000. Clinical signs may include weight loss buy bentyl 10 mg low cost, entiate tumors from other causes of ulceration or vomiting, passing of whole seeds in the feces, regen- hypertrophy. Al- (Alcian blue and periodic acid Schiff) facilitates dif- though hypoproteinemia may occur, the albu- ferentiation between tumors of proventricular and ventricular origin. Death usu- (pro)ventricular tumors have been published, but it ally ensues when massive gastric bleeding occurs has been suggested that early diagnosis and surgical following erosion of a major vessel. Rhamphotheca P P P P P Oropharynx P G,P P G G G,P Esophagus G G G,P G,P,O Crop G P G,P Proventriculus G,P,O G P G Ventriculus G,P,O G G G G P G Intestines G,P G,P G G,P G G G Rectum O G Cloaca G,P,O P P P Pancreas G G G Squamous cell carcinomas are the most common tumor in the oral cavity of Galliformes. Oropharyngeal tumors may be painful, ulcerative and infiltrative but rarely metastasize. Clinical signs may include dysphagia, regurgitation, vomiting, diarrhea, tenesmus and cloacal prolapse. Prognosis depends on the location of the tumor, the degree of tissue infiltration and the occurence of metastasis. Many connective tissue tumors in gallinaceous birds may be caused by the leucosis sarcoma group of viral infections. Intestinal tumors must be differentiated from metastatic oviductal or ovarian tumors by demonstrating that no primary tumors of these organs exist and that the tumor originates from intestinal mucosal epithelium or glands, rather than growing inward from the serosal surface. In the emu and cassowary, a yolk sac can be palpated for at least one week, but it should be reduced in size. It should be noted that at hatching, the liver of some birds is a bright yellow color due to Anatomy and Physiology101 absorption of pigments from the yolk sac (see Color 30). The liver gradually changes to the mahogany In the majority of avian species, the duodenum is a color of the adult between eight and fourteen days of narrow, U-shaped organ that originates from the age in gallinaceous birds. The pale vitelline diverticulum has been found to contribute to pink or yellow lobulated pancreas is located between extramedullary myelopoiesis, and it has been sug- the proximal descending and distal ascending duode- gested to have a lymphoepithelial function. In some species (eg, White- tailed Sea Eagle and Jackass Penguin), secondary The large intestine usually consists of paired ceca folds are present in the duodenum. The ceca arise at the Stork, the duodenum is twisted, while in other spe- ileorectal junction. The anatomy of the ceca varies cies (eg, Northern Fulmar and Gannet), the duode- among species. Tetraonids (eg, ca- pancreatic ducts often open near each other at the percaillies grouse that eat branches and twigs of distal end of the duodenum. There are one, two trees) have the largest ceca of any species because of (ducks and geese) or three (domestic fowl) pancreatic 4 their high cellulose diet.

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